its place, and this was superseded by the re-establishment by Mr Hoffer of the British Chess Association, which again fell into abeyance after having organized three international tournaments—London, 1886; Bradford, 1888; and Manchester, 1890—and four national tournaments. There were various reasons why the British Chess Association ceased to exercise its functions, one being that minor associations did not feel inclined to merge their identity in a central association. The London League was established, besides the Northern Chess Union, the Southern Counties’ Chess Union, the Midland Counties’ Union, the Kent County Association; and there are associations in Surrey, Sussex, Essex, Hampshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, Cambridgeshire, Herefordshire, Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Staffordshire, Worcestershire and Lancashire. All these associations are supported by the affiliated chess clubs of the respective counties. Scotland (which has its own association), Wales and Ireland have also numerous clubs.
Still, England did not produce one new eminent player between 1875 and 1905. First-class chess remained in the hands of the veterans Burn, Blackburne, Mason and Bird. The old amateurs passed away, their place being taken by a new generation of powerful amateurs, so well equipped that Great Britain could hold its own in an amateur contest against the combined forces of Germany, Austria, Holland and Russia. The terms master and amateur are not used in any invidious sense, but simply as designating, in the former case, first-class players, and in the latter, those just on the borderland of highest excellence. The professional element as it existed in the heydey of Simpson’s Divan almost disappeared, the reason being the increased number of chess clubs, where enthusiasts and students might indulge in their favourite pastime to their heart’s content, tournaments with attractive prizes being arranged during the season. The former occupation of the masters vanished in consequence; the few who remained depended upon the passing visitors from the provinces who were eager to test their strength by the standard of the master. Blackburne visited the provinces annually, keeping the interest in first-class chess alive by his simultaneous play and his extraordinary skill as a blindfold player—unsurpassed until the advent of Harry Nelson Pillsbury (1872–1906), the leading American master since Morphy.
Germany has produced great chess players in Tarrasch, E. Lasker, Lipke, Fritz, Bardeleben, Walbrodt and Mieses, besides a goodly number of amateurs. Austria produced Max Weiss, Schlechter, Marco and Hruby, to say nothing of such fine players as the Fleissigs, Dr Mertner, Dr Kaufmann, Fahndrich, Jacques Schwarz and others. Hungary was worthily represented by Maroczy, Makovetz and Brody, Maroczy being the best after Charousek’s death. Russia, having lost Jaenisch, Petroff and Schumoff, discovered Tchigorin, Janowsky, Schiffers, Alapin, Winawer and Taubenhaus. France showed a decline for many years, having only the veteran M. Arnous de Rivière and the naturalized M. Rosenthal left, followed by Goetz and two good amateurs, MM. Didier and Billecard. Italy had only Signer Salvioli, although Signer Reggio came to the fore. Holland had a fair number of players equal to the English amateurs, but no master since the promising young van Lennep died.
The first modern International Chess Tournament held in London in 1851 was the forerunner of various similar contests of which the following is a complete table:—
1851. London. 1 Anderssen, 2 Wyvill, 3 Williams.
1857. Manchester. 1 Lowenthal, 2 Anderssen.
1857. New York. 1 Morphy, 2 L. Paulsen.
1858. Birmingham. 1 Lowenthal, 2 Falkbeer.
1860. Cambridge. 1 Kolisch, 2 Stanley.
1861. Bristol, 1 L. Paulsen, 2 Boden.
1862. London, 1 Anderssen, 2 L. Paulsen, 3 Owen.
1865. Dublin. 1 Steinitz, 2 MacDonnell.
1866. Redcar. De Vere.
1866. English Championship Cup. De Vere.
1866. British Chess Association. 1 Steinitz, 2 Green.
1867. Paris. 1 Kolisch, 2 Winawer, 3 Steinitz.
1867. Dundee. 1 Neumann, 2 Steinitz, 3 De Vere and MacDonnell.
1868. English Championship Cup. 1 Blackburne, 2 De Vere.
1868. British Chess Association Handicap. 1 Steinitz, 2 Wisker, 3 Blackburne.
1870. Baden-Baden. 1 Anderssen, 2 Steinitz, 3 Blackburne and Neumann.
1870. English Championship Cup. 1 Wisker, 2 Burn.
1870–1871. City of London Handicap. 1 Potter, 2 De Vere.
1871–1872. City of London Handicap. 1 Steinitz, 2 Keats.
1872. London. 1 Steinitz, 2 Blackburne, 3 Zukertort.
1872. English Championship Cup. 1 Wisker (becoming permanent holder of the cup), 2 De Vere.
1873. Vienna. 1 Steinitz, 2 Blackburne, 3 Anderssen.
1876. London. 1 Blackburne, 2 Zukertort, 3 Potter.
1878. Paris. 1 Zukertort, 2 Winawer (after a tie with Zukertort), 3 Blackburne.
1880. Wiesbaden. 1, 2, and 3, a tie between Blackburne, Englisch and A. Schwarz.
1881. Berlin. 1 Blackburne, 2 Zukertort, 3 Tchigorin and Winawer. Tchigorin made his first public appearance in this contest.
1882. Vienna. 1 Steinitz and Winawer, 3 Mason.
1883. London. 1 Zukertort, 2 Steinitz, 3 Blackburne.
1883. Nuremberg. 1 Winawer, 2 Blackburne, 3 Mason. This tournament is a milestone in modern chess history. The prizes being comparatively small, it was thought that it necessarily must be a failure, the munificently endowed London tournament having just been completed. But, strange to say, whilst in London fourteen players competed, there were nineteen entries in Nuremberg. Winawer, not placed in the former, won the first prize in the latter.
1885. Hamburg. 1 Gunsberg; the next prizes were divided by Blackburne, Mason, Englisch, Tarrasch and Weiss.
1885. Hereford. 1 Blackburne, 2 and 3 Bird and Schallopp.
1886. London. 1 Blackburne, 2 Burn, 3 Gunsberg and Taubenhaus.
1886. Nottingham. 1 Burn, 2 Schallopp, 3 Gunsberg and Zukertort.
1887. Frankfort. 1 Mackenzie, 2 Blackburne and Weiss.
1888. Bradford. 1 Gunsberg, 2 Mackenzie, 3 Mason and Bardeleben.
1889. New York. 1 Tchigorin and Weiss, 3 Gunsberg.
1889. Breslau. 1 Tarrasch, 2 Burn, 3 Weiss.
1890. Amsterdam. 1 Burn, 2 Lasker, 3 Mason. There were only nine competitors, Lasker unexpectedly losing to van Vliet by a trap.
1890. Manchester. 1 Tarrasch, 2 Blackburne, 3 Bird and Mackenzie.
1892. Dresden. 1 Tarrasch, 2 Makovetz and Forges. Blackburne received a special prize.
1894. Leipzig. 1 Tarrasch, 2 Lipke and Teichmann.
1895. Hastings. 1 Pillsbury, 2 Tchigorin, 3 Lasker. This tournament is historical for the first appearance of Pillsbury, the American champion, and Maroczy, the Hungarian champion.
1896. Nuremberg. 1 Lasker, 2 Maroczy, 3 Pillsbury and Tarrasch.
1896. Budapest. 1 Tchigorin, 2 Charousek, 3 Pillsbury.
1897. Berlin. 1 Charousek, 2 Walbrodt, 3 Blackburne. Englisch had to abandon the tournament and return to Vienna ill. He never recovered and died a few weeks later.
1898. Vienna. 1 Tarrasch, 2 Pillsbury, 3 Janowsky. Tarrasch achieved a remarkable victory in this important tournament. Pillsbury’s chances were better than his, but he managed to run him neck and neck and beat him in the tie match which followed.
1898. Cologne. 1 Burn, 2 Charousek, Cohn and Tchigorin.
1899. London. 1 Lasker, 2 Janowsky, Maroczy and Pillsbury. Janowsky sacrificed the second prize by trying to win a game against Steinitz when with an easy draw in hand he could have secured the second place for himself alone.
1900. Munich. Tie between Maroczy, Pillsbury and Schlechter for three chief prizes.
1900. Paris, 1 Lasker, 2 Pillsbury, 3 Maroczy and Marshall.
1901. Monte Carlo. 1 Janowsky, 2 Schlechter, 3 Scheve and Tehigorin. A novel rule was introduced at this tournament, viz. the first drawn game to count ¼ to each player, to be replayed, and in case of a draw again to count ¼ each, and in case of win ½ to the winner. Theoretically this seems logical, but in practice it did not work well.
1902. Monte Carlo. 1 Pillsbury and Maroczy, 3 Janowsky.
1902. Hanover. 1 Janowsky, 2 Pillsbury, 3 Atkins.
1903. Monte Carlo. 1 Tarrasch, 2 Maroczy, 3 Pillsbury.
1904. Monte Carlo. 1 Maroczy, 2 Schlechter, 3 Marshall.
1904. Cambridge Springs, 1 Marshall, 2 Lasker and Janowsky.
1905. Ostend. 1 Maroczy, 2 Tarrasch and Janowsky.
1905. Scheveningen. 1 Marshall, 2 Leussen, 3 Spielmann.
1906. Stockholm. 1 Schlechter and Bernstein, 3 Mieses.
1906. Ostend. 1 Schlechter, 2 Maroczy, 3 Rubenstein.
1906. Nuremberg, 1 Marshall, 2 Duras, 3 Schlechter and Fleischmann.
1907. Vienna, 1 Mieses, 2 Duras, 3 Maroczy and Vidmare.
1907. Ostend. 1 Bernstein and Rubenstein, 3 Mieses.
1907. Ostend. 1 Tarrasch, 2 Schlechter, 3 Janowsky and Marshall.
1907. Carlsbad. 1 Rubenstein, 2 Maroczy, 3 Niemzowitch and Leonhardt.
In the absence of any recognized authority to confer the title