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formerly had a council of chiefs. They number some 3000, and are divided into northern and southern Cheyennes; the former being on a reservation in Montana, the latter in Oklahoma. In 1878–79 a band of the former revolted, and some seventy-five of them were killed.

See Handbook of American Indians (Washington, 1907); also Indians, North American.

CHEYENNE, the chief city and capital of Wyoming, U.S.A., and county-seat of Laramie county, on Crow Creek, about 106 m. N. of Denver. Pop. (1890) 11,690; (1900) 14,087, of whom 1691 were foreign-born; (1905) 13,656; (1910) 11,320. It is served by the Union Pacific, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the Colorado & Southern railways. It is situated near the southern boundary of the state, on the high plains near the E. foot of the Laramie range, at an altitude of 6050 ft.; the surrounding country is given up to mining (lignite and iron), grazing and dry-farming. Among the principal buildings are the capitol, modelled after the National Capitol at Washington; the United States government building, the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Home, the Union Pacific depôt, the high school, the Carnegie library, St Mary’s cathedral (Roman Catholic), the Convent of the Holy Child Jesus, the Masonic Temple and the Elks’ clubhouse. The city has two parks, and is connected by a boulevard with Fort D. A. Russell, an important United States military post, 4 m. north of the city, established in 1867 and named in honour of Major-General David Allen Russell (1820–1864) of the Union army, who was killed at Opequan, Virginia. The industrial prosperity of Cheyenne is largely due to the extensive railway shops of the Union Pacific situated here; but the city is also an important cattle market and has stock-yards. In 1905 the value of the city’s factory products ($924,697) was almost one-fourth the total value of the factory products of the state. Cheyenne, settled in 1867, when the Union Pacific reached here, was named from the Cheyenne Indians. It was chosen as the site for the capital of the territory in 1869, and was incorporated in the same year.

CHEYNE, THOMAS KELLY (1841–  ), English divine and Biblical critic, was born in London, and educated at Merchant Taylors’ School and Oxford. Subsequently he studied German theological methods at Göttingen. He was ordained in 1864, and held a fellowship at Balliol College, Oxford, 1868–1882. During the earlier part of this period he stood alone in the university as a teacher of the main conclusions of modern Old Testament criticism. In 1881 he was presented to the rectory of Tendring, in Essex, and in 1884 he was made a member of the Old Testament revision company. He resigned the living of Tendring in 1885 on his appointment to the Oriel professorship, which carried with it a canonry at Rochester. In 1889 he delivered the Bampton lectures at Oxford. In 1908 he resigned his professorship. He consistently urged in his writings the necessity of a broad and comprehensive study of the Scriptures in the light of literary, historical and scientific considerations. His publications include commentaries on the Prophets and Hagiographa, and lectures and addresses on theological subjects. He was a joint editor of the Encyclopaedia Biblica (London, 1899–1903), a work embodying the more advanced conclusions of English biblical criticism. In the introduction to his Origin of the Psalter (London, 1891) he gave an account of his development as a critical scholar.

CHÉZY, ANTOINE LÉONARD DE (1773–1832), French orientalist, was born at Neuilly on the 15th of January 1773. His father, Antoine de Chézy (1718–1798), was an engineer who finally became director of the École des Fonts et Chaussées. The son was intended for his father’s profession; but in 1799 he obtained a post in the oriental department of the national library. About 1803 he began the study of Sanskrit, though he possessed neither grammar nor dictionary, and by great labour he obtained sufficient knowledge of the language to be able to compose in it verses said to possess great elegance. He was the first professor of Sanskrit appointed in the Collège de France (1815), a chevalier of the Legion of Honour, and a member of the Académie des Inscriptions. He died in 1832. Among his works were Medjouin et Leila (1807), from the Persian; Yadjanadatta Badha (1814) and La Reconnaissance de Sacountala (1830), from the Sanskrit; L’Anthologie érotique d’Amrou (1831), published under the pseudonym d’Apudy.

See the Mémoires of the Académie des Inscriptions (new series, vol. xii.), where there is a notice of Chézy by Silvestre de Sacy.

CHHATARPUR, a native state in the Bundelkhand agency of Central India. Area, 1118 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 156,139; estimated revenue, £16,000. The chief, whose hereditary title is raja, is a Rajput of the Ponwar clan, whose ancestor dispossessed the descendant of Chhatar Sal, the founder of Bundelkhand independence, towards the end of the 18th century. The state was guaranteed to Kunwar Suni Singh Ponwar in 1806. In 1854 it would have lapsed to the British government for want of direct heirs, but was conferred on Jagat Raj as a special act of grace. The town of Chhatarpur, which is named after Chhatar Sal, and contains his cenotaph, is 70 m. by road S.W. of Banda. Pop. (1901) 10,029. There are manufactures of paper and coarse cutlery, and a high school. The state also contains the British cantonment of Nowgong.

CHHATTISGARH, a division of the Central Provinces of India, comprising a British division (21,240 sq. m.) and two small feudatory states, Raigarh (1486 sq. m.) and Sarangarh (540 sq. m.). In 1905 the five Oriya states of Bamra, Rairakhol, Sonpur, Patna and Kalahandi were transferred from the Central Provinces to Bengal. Chhattisgarh, or “the thirty-six forts,” is a low-lying plain, enclosed on every side by hills and forests, while a rocky barrier shuts it off from the Nagpur plain on the west. Two great rivers, the Nerbudda and Sone, take their rise at the side of the Amarkantak hill in the north-west corner of the division, the Nerbudda flowing nearly due west to the Bombay coast, the Sone ultimately falling into the Ganges in Lower Bengal. Protected on both sides by ranges of hills, the district was, until late years, the least known portion of the most obscure division of India, but recently it has been opened up by the Bengal-Nagpur railway, and has developed into a great grain-producing country. Its population is almost pure Hindu, except in the two great tracts of hill and forest, where the aboriginal tribes retired before the Aryan invasion. It remained comparatively unaffected either by the Oriya immigration on the east, or by the later influx of Mahrattas on the west. For though the Mahrattas conquered and governed the country for a period, they did not take possession of the land. In 1901 the population of the two remaining feudatory states was 125,281, Raigarh having 86,543 and Sarangarh 38,738. Much of the soil is still covered with forest, but it includes fertile rice land.

The British division of Chhattisgarh comprises the three districts of Drug (created in 1906), Raipur and Bilaspur. In 1905 the district of Sambalpur, together with the five feudatory states, was transferred to Bengal. In 1901 the population of the reduced area was 2,642,983.

CHHINDWARA, a town and district of British India, in the Nerbudda division of the Central Provinces. The site of the town is 2200 ft. above sea-level, and is surrounded by ranges of low hills. The European station extends for nearly 2 m. and is well wooded. It is considered very healthy, and forms a resort for European visitors from Nagpur and Kampti during the hot weather.

The area of the District of Chhindwara is 4631 sq. m. It has two natural subdivisions—the hill country above the slopes of the Satpura mountains, called the Balaghat, and a tract of low land to the south called the Zerghat. The high tableland of the Balaghat lies for the most part upon the great basaltic formation which stretches across the Satpuras as far east as Jubbulpore. The country consists of a regular succession of hills and fertile valleys, formed by the small ranges which cross its surface east and west. The average height of the uplands is 2500 ft., but there are many points of greater elevation. The appearance of the Zerghat below the hills is generally open and undulating. The country is intersected by several streams, of which the Kanhan is the most considerable. Near the hills and along the streams are strips and patches of jungle; the villages are usually surrounded