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hotel erected for the reception of the visitors who resort to the place as a sanatorium in summer, and the religious wants of the community are supplied by a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church. Though the harbour is deep and extensive, and possessed of excellent anchorage, large Vessels have to be moored at a considerable distance from the shore. Chi-fu has continued to show fair progress as a place of trade, but the total volume is inconsiderable, having regard to the area it supplies. In 1880 the total exports and imports were valued at £2,724,000, in 1899 they amounted to £4,228,000, and in 1904 to £4,909,908. In 1895 there entered the port 905 vessels representing a tonnage of 835,248 tons, while in 1905 the number of vessels had risen to 1842, representing a tonnage of 1,492,514 tons. The imports are mainly woollen and cotton goods, iron and opium, and the exports include bean cake, bean oil, peas, raw silk, straw-braid, walnuts, a coarse kind of vermicelli, vegetables and dried fruits. Communication with the interior is only by roads, which are extremely defective, and nearly all the traffic is by pack animals. From its healthy situation and the convenience of its anchorage, Chi-fu has become a favourite rendezvous for the fleets of the European powers in Chinese waters, and consequently it has at times been an important coaling station. It lies in closing proximity to Korea, Port Arthur and Wei-hai-Wei, and it shared to some extent in the excitement to which the military and naval operations in these quarters gave rise. The Chi-fu convention was signed here in 1876 by Sir Thomas Wade and Li-Hung-Chang.

CHIGI-ALBANI, the name of a Roman princely family of Sienese extraction descended from the counts of Ardenghesca. The earliest authentic mention of them is in the 13th century, and they first became famous in the person of Agostino Chigi (d. 1520), an immensely rich banker who built the palace and gardens afterwards known as the Farnesina, decorated by Raphael, and was noted for the splendour of his entertainments; Pope Julius II. made him practically his finance minister and gave him the privilege of quartering his own (Della Rovere) arms with those of the Chigi. Fabio Chigi, on being made pope (Alexander VII.) in 1655, conferred the Roman patriciate on his family, and created his nephew Agostino prince of Farnese and duke of Ariccia, and the emperor Leopold I. created the latter Reichsfürst (prince of the Holy Roman Empire) in 1659. In 1712 the family received the dignity of hereditary marshals of the Church and guardians of the conclaves, which gave them a very great importance on the death of every pope. On the marriage in 1735 of another Agostino Chigi (1710–1769) with Giulia Albani, heiress of the Albani, a Venetian patrician family, said to be of Albanian origin, her name was added to that of Chigi. The family owns large estates at Siena.

See A. von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, vol. iii. (Berlin, 1868); Almanach de Gotha.

CHIGWELL, a parish and residential district in the Epping parliamentary division of Essex, England; with stations (Chigwell Lane and Chigwell) on two branches of the Great Eastern railway, 12 m. N.E. from London. Pop. (1901) 2508. The old village church of St Mary, principally Perpendicular, has a Norman south door. The village lies in a branch of the Roding valley, fragments of Hainault Forest lying to the south and east, bordering the village of Chigwell Row. The village of Chigwell appears in the Domesday survey. The pleasant scenery of the neighbourhood, which attracts large numbers both of visitors and of residents from London, is described in Dickens’s novel, Barnaby Rudge, and the King’s Head Inn, Dickens’s “Maypole,” still stands. The old grammar school, founded by Samuel Harsnett, archbishop of York (d. 1631), whose fine memorial brass is in St Mary’s church, has become one of the minor modern institutions of the English public school type. William Penn attended school at Chigwell from his home at Wanstead.

CHIH-LI (“Direct Rule”), the metropolitan province of China, in which is situated Peking, the capital of the empire. It contains eleven prefectural cities, and occupies an area of 58,950 sq. m. The population is 29,400,000, the vast majority of whom are resident in the plain country. This province forms part of the great delta plain of China proper, 20,000 sq. m. of which are within the provincial boundaries; the remainder of the territory consists of the mountain ranges which define its northern and western frontier. The plain of Chih-li is formed principally by detritus deposited by the Pei-ho and its tributary the Hun-ho (“muddy river”), otherwise known as the Yung-ting-ko, and other streams having their sources in mountains of Shan-si and other ranges. It is bounded E. by the Gulf of Chih-li and Shan-tung, and S. by Shan-tung and Ho-nan. The proportion of Mahommedans among the population is very large. In Peking there are said to be as many as 20,000 Mahommedan families, and in Pao-ting Fu, the capital of the province, there are about 1000 followers of the prophet. The extremes of heat and cold in Chih-li are very marked. During the months of December, January and February the rivers are frozen up, and even the Gulf of Chih-li is fringed with a broad border of ice. There are four rivers of some importance in the province: the Pei-ho, with the Hun-ho, which rises in the mountains in Mongolia and, flowing to the west of Peking, forms a junction with the Pei-ho at Tientsin; the Shang-si-ho, which rises in the mountains on the north of the province of Shan-si, and takes a south-easterly course as far as the neighbourhood of Ki Chow, from which point it trends north-east and eventually joines the Hun-ho some 15 m. above Tientsin; the Pu-to-ho, which rises in Shan-si, and after running a parallel course to Shang-si-ho on the south, empties itself in the same way into the Hun-ho; and the Lan-ho, which rises in Mongolia, enters the province on the north-east after passing to the west of Jehol, passes the city of Yung-p‘ing Fu in its course (which is south-easterly) through Chih-li, and from thence winds its way to the north-eastern boundary of the Gulf of Chih-li. The province contains three lakes of considerable size. The largest is the Ta-lu-tsze Hu, which lies in 37° 40′ N. and 115° 20′ E.; the second in importance is one which is situated to the east of Pao-ting Fu; and the third is the Tu-lu-tsze Hu, which lies east by north of Shun-te Fu. Four high roads radiate from Peking, one leading to Urga by way of Süan-hwa Fu, which passes through the Great Wall at Chang-kiu K‘ow; another, which enters Mongolia through the Ku-pei K‘ow to the north-east, and after continuing that course as far as Fung-ning turns in a north-westerly direction to Dolonnor; a third striking due east by way of T‘ung-chow and Yung-p‘ing Fu to Shan-hai Kwan, the point where the Great Wall terminates on the coast; and a fourth which trends in a south-westerly direction to Pao-ting Fu and on to T‘ai-yuen Fu in Shan-si. The mountain ranges to the north of the province abound with coal, notably at Chai-tang, T‘ai-gan-shan, Miao-gan-ling, and Fu-tao in the Si-shan or Western Hills. “At Chai-tang,” wrote Baron von Richthofen, “I was surprised to walk over a regular succession of coal-bearing strata, the thickness of which, estimating it step by step as I proceeded gradually from the lowest to the highest strata, exceeds 7000 ft.” The coal here is anthracite, as is also that at T‘ai-gan-shan, where are found beds of greater value than any in the neighbourhood of Peking. In Süan-hwa Fu coal is also found, but not in such quantities as in the places above named. Iron and silver also exist in small quantities in different parts of the province, and hot and warm springs are very common at the foot of the hills along the northern and western edges of the province. The principal agricultural products are wheat, kao-liang, oats, millet, maize, pulse and potatoes. Fruits and vegetables are also grown in large quantities. Of the former the chief kinds are pears, apples, plums, apricots, peaches, persimmons and melons. Tientsin is the Treaty Port of the province.

CHIHUAHUA, a northern frontier state of Mexico, bounded N. and N.E. by the United States (New Mexico and Texas), E. by Coahuila, S. by Durango, and W. by Sinaloa and Sonora. Pop. (1895) 260,008; (1900) 327,784. Area, 87,802 sq. m. The surface of the state is in great part an elevated plateau, sloping gently toward the Rio Grande. The western side, however, is much broken by the Sierra Madre and its spurs, which form elevated valleys of great fertility. An arid sandy plain