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CHÂTILLON—CHATTANOOGA

Papers, R.G.S., vol. iii. (1893); J.H. Scott, “The Osteology of the Maori and the Moriori,” Trans. New Zealand Institute, vol. xxvi. (1893); C.W. Andrews, “The Extinct Birds of the Chatham Islands,” Novitates Zoologicae, vol. ii. p. 73 (1896).


CHÂTILLON, the name of a French family whose history has furnished material for a large volume in folio by A. du Chesne, a learned Frenchman, published in 1621. But in spite of its merits this book presents a certain number of inaccurate statements, some of which it is important to notice. If, for instance, it be true that the Châtillons came from Châtillon-sur-Marne (Marne, arrondissement of Reims), it is now certain that, since the 11th century, this castle belonged to the count of Champagne, and that the head of the house of Châtillon was merely tenant in that place. One of them, however, Gaucher of Châtillon, lord of Crécy and afterwards constable of France, became in 1290 lord of Châtillon-sur-Marne by exchange, but since 1303 a new agreement allotted to him the countship of Porcien, while Châtillon reverted to the domain of the counts of Champagne. It may be well to mention also that, in consequence of a resemblance of their armorial bearings, du Chesne considered wrongly that the lords of Bazoches and those of Château-Porcien of the 12th and 13th centuries drew their descent from the house of Châtillon.

The most important branches of the house of Châtillon were those of (1) St Pol, beginning with Gaucher III. of Châtillon, who became count of St Pol in right of his wife Isabella in 1205, the last male of the line being Guy V. (d. 1360); (2) Blois, founded by the marriage of Hugh of Châtillon-St Pol (d. 1248) with Mary, daughter of Margaret of Blois (d. 1230),—this branch became extinct with the death of Guy II. in 1397; (3) Porcien, from 1303 to 1400, when Count John sold the countship to Louis, duke of Orleans; (4) Penthièvre, by the marriage of Charles of Blois (d. 1364) with Jeanne (d. 1384), heiress of Guy, count of Penthièvre (d. 1331), the male line becoming extinct in 1457.

See A. du Chesne, Histoire généalogique de la maison de Chastillon-sur-Marne (1621); Anselme, Histoire généalogique de la maison royale de France, vi. 91-124 (1730).  (A. Lo.) 


CHÂTILLON-SUR-SEINE, a town of eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Côte-d’Or, on the Eastern and Paris-Lyon railways, 67 m. N.N.W. of Dijon, between that city and Troyes. Pop. (1906) 4430. It is situated on both banks of the upper Seine, which is swelled at its entrance to the town by the Douix, one of the most abundant springs in France. Châtillon is constructed on ample lines and rendered attractive by beautiful promenades. Some ruins on an eminence above it mark the site of a château of the dukes of Burgundy. Near by stands the church of St Vorle of the 10th century, but with many additions of later date; it contains a sculptured Holy Sepulchre of the 16th century and a number of frescoes. In a fine park stands a modern château built by Marshal Marmont, duke of Ragusa, born at Châtillon in 1774. It was burnt in 1871, and subsequently rebuilt. The town preserves several interesting old houses. Châtillon has a sub-prefecture, tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a school of agriculture and a communal college. Among its industries are brewing, iron-founding and the manufacture of mineral and other blacks. It has trade in wood, charcoal, lithographic and other stone. Châtillon anciently consisted of two parts, Chaumont, belonging to the duchy of Burgundy, and Bourg, ruled by the bishop of Langres; it did not coalesce into one town till the end of the 16th century. It was taken by the English in 1360 and by Louis XI. in 1475, during his struggle with Charles the Bold. Châtillon was one of the first cities to adhere to the League, but suffered severely from the oppression of its garrisons and governors, and in 1595 made voluntary submission to Henry IV. In modern times it is associated with the abortive conference of 1814 between the representatives of Napoleon and the Allies.


CHATSWORTH, a village of Derbyshire, England, containing a seat belonging to the duke of Devonshire, one of the most splendid private residences in England. Chatsworth House is situated close to the left bank of the river Derwent, 2¾ m. from Bakewell. It is Ionic in style, built foursquare, and enclosing a large open courtyard, with a fountain in the centre. In front, a beautiful stretch of lawn slopes gradually down to the riverside, and a bridge, from which may best be seen the grand façade of the building, as it stands out in relief against the wooded ridge of Bunker’s Hill. The celebrated gardens are adorned with sculptures by Gabriel Gibber; Sir Joseph Paxton designed the great conservatory, unrivalled in Europe, which covers an acre; and the fountains, which include one with a jet 260 ft. high, are said to be surpassed only by those at Versailles. Within the house there is a very fine collection of pictures, including the well-known portraits by Reynolds of Georgiana, duchess of Devonshire. Other paintings are ascribed to Holbein, Dürer, Murillo, Jan van Eyck, Dolci, Veronese and Titian. Hung in the gallery of sketches there are some priceless drawings attributed to Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raffaelle, Correggio, Titian and other old masters. Statues by Canova, Thorwaldsen, Chantrey and R.J. Wyatt are included among the sculptures. In the state apartments the walls and window-panes are in some cases inlaid with marble or porphyry; the woodcarving, marvellous for its intricacy, grace and lightness of effect, is largely the work of Samuel Watson of Heanor (d. 1715). Chatsworth Park is upwards of 11 m. in circuit, and contains many noble forest-trees, the whole being watered by the Derwent, and surrounded by high moors and uplands. Beyond the river, and immediately opposite the house, stands the model village of Edensor, where most of the cottages were built in villa style, with gardens, by order of the 6th duke. The parish church, restored by the same benefactor, contains an old brass in memory of John Beaton, confidential servant to Mary, queen of Scots, who died in 1570; and in the churchyard are the graves of Lord Frederick Cavendish, murdered in 1882 in Phoenix Park, Dublin, and of Sir Joseph Paxton.

Chatsworth (Chetsvorde, Chetelsvorde, “the court of Chetel”) took its name from Chetel, one of its Saxon owners, who held it of Edward the Confessor. It belonged to the crown and was entrusted by the Conqueror to the custody of William Peverell. Chatsworth afterwards belonged for many generations to the family of Leech, and was purchased in the reign of Elizabeth by Sir William Cavendish, husband of the famous Bess of Hardwick. In 1557 he began to build Chatsworth House, and it was completed after his death by his widow, then countess of Shrewsbury. Here Mary, queen of Scots, spent several years of her imprisonment under the care of the earl of Shrewsbury. During the Civil War, Chatsworth was occasionally occupied as a fortress by both parties. It was pulled down, and the present house begun by William, 1st duke of Devonshire in 1688. The little village consists almost exclusively of families employed upon the estate.


CHATTANOOGA, a city and the county-seat of Hamilton county, Tennessee, U.S.A., in the S.E. part of the state, about 300 m. S. of Cincinnati, Ohio, and 150 m. S.E. of Nashville, Tennessee, on the Tennessee river, and near the boundary line between Tennessee and Georgia. Pop. (1860) 2545; (1870) 6093; (1880) 12,892; (1890) 29,100; (1900) 30,154, of whom 994 were foreign-born and 13,122 were negroes; (U.S. census, 1910) 44,604. The city is served by the Alabama Great Southern (Queen and Crescent), the Cincinnati Southern (leased by the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific railway company), the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis (controlled by the Louisville & Nashville), and its leased line, the Western & Atlantic (connecting with Atlanta, Ga.), the Central of Georgia, and the Chattanooga Southern railways, and by freight and passenger steamboat lines on the Tennessee river, which is navigable to and beyond this point during eight months of the year. That branch of the Southern railway extending from Chattanooga to Memphis was formerly the Memphis & Charleston, under which name it became famous in the American Civil War. Chattanooga occupies a picturesque site at a sharp bend of the river. To the south lies Lookout Mountain, whose summit (2126 ft. above the sea; 1495 ft. above the river) commands a magnificent view. To the east rises Missionary Ridge. Fine driveways and electric lines connect with both Lookout Mountain (the summit of which is reached by an inclined plane on which cars are operated by