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extinct form are distinctly cusped. Whether, however, the tail is longer than in the existing Notopteris of Fiji and New Guinea, or whether the molars are more distinctly cusped than is the case with the Solomon Island Pteropus (Pteralopex), is not stated. Still, the fact that the Miocene fruit-bat does show certain signs of approximation to the insectivorous (and more generalized) section of the order is of interest. Of the Oligocene forms, Pseudorhinolophus of Europe is apparently a member of the Rhinolophidae; but the affinities of Alastor and Vespertiliavus, which are likewise European, are more doubtful, although the latter may be related to Taphozous. The North American Vespertilio (Vesperugo) anemophilus and the European V. aquensis and V. parisiensis are, on the other hand, members of the Vespertilionidae, the last being apparently allied to the serotine (V. serotinus).

Authorities.—The above article is based to some extent on the article in the 9th edition of this work by G. E. Dobson, whose British Museum “Catalogue” is, however, now obsolete. Professor H. Winge’s “Jordfundae og nulevende Flagermus (Chiroptera),” published in E. Mus. Lundi (Copenhagen, 1892), contains much valuable information; and for Pteropodidae Dr P. Matschie’s Megachiroptera (Berlin, 1899), should be consulted. For the rest the student must refer to namerous papers by G. M. Allen, K. Andersen, F. A. Jentink, G. S. Miller, T. S. Palmer, A. G. Rehn, O. Thomas and others, in various English and American zoological serials, all of which are quoted in the volumes of the Zoological Record.  (R. L.*) 

CHIRU, a graceful Tibetan antelope (Pantholops Hodgsoni), of which the bucks are armed with long, slender and heavily-ridged horns of an altogether peculiar type, while the does are hornless. Possibly this handsome antelope may be the original of the mythical unicorn, a single buck when seen in profile looking exactly as if it had but one long straight horn. Although far from uncommon, chiru are very wary, and consequently difficult to approach. They are generally found in small parties, although occasionally in herds. They inhabit the desolate plateau of Tibet, at elevations of between 13,000 and 18,000 ft., and, like all Tibetan animals, have a firm thick coat, formed in this instance of close woolly hair of a grey fawn-colour. The most peculiar feature about the chiru is, however, its swollen, puffy nose, which is probably connected with breathing a highly rarefied atmosphere. A second antelope inhabiting the same country as the chiru is the goa (Gazella picticaudata), a member of the gazelle group characterized by the peculiar form of the horns of the bucks and certain features of coloration, whereby it is markedly distinguished from all its kindred save one or two other central Asian species. The chiru, which belongs to the typical or antilopine section of antelopes, is probably allied to the saiga.  (R. L.*) 

CHIRURGEON, one whose profession it is to cure disease by operating with the hand. The word in its original form is now obsolete. It derives from the Mid. Eng. cirurgien or sirurgien, through the Fr. from the Gr. χειρουργός, one who operates with the hand (from χεἰρ, hand, ἔργον, work); from the early form is derived the modern word “surgeon.” “Chirurgeon” is a 16th century reversion to the Greek origin. (See Surgery.)

CHISEL (from the O. Fr. cisel, modern ciseau, Late Lat. cisellum, a cutting tool, from caedere, to cut), a sharp-edged tool for cutting metal, wood or stone. There are numerous varieties of chisels used in different trades; the carpenter’s chisel is wooden-handled with a straight edge, transverse to the axis and bevelled on one side; stone masons’ chisels are bevelled on both sides, and others have oblique, concave or convex edges. A chisel with a semicircular blade is called a “gouge.” The tool is worked either by hand-pressure or by blows from a hammer or mallet. The “cold chisel” has a steel edge, highly tempered to cut unheated metal. (See Tool.)

CHISLEHURST, an urban district in the Sevenoaks parliamentary division of Kent, England, 11¼ m. S.E. of London, by the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1901) 7429. It is situated 300 ft. above sea-level, on a common of furze and heather in the midst of picturesque country. The church of St Nicholas (Perpendicular with Early English portions, but much restored) has a tomb of the Walsingham family, who had a lease of the manor from Elizabeth; Sir Francis Walsingham, the statesman, being born here in 1536. Another statesman of the same age, Sir Nicholas Bacon, was born here in 1510. Near the church is an ancient cockpit. The mortuary chapel attached to the Roman Catholic church of St Mary was built to receive the body of Napoleon III., who died at Camden Place in 1873; and that of his son was brought hither in 1879. Both were afterwards removed to the memorial chapel at Farnborough in Hampshire. Camden Place was built by William Camden, the antiquary, in 1609, and in 1765 gave the title of Baron Camden to Lord Chancellor Pratt. The house was the residence not only of Napoleon III., but of the empress Eugénie and of the prince imperial, who is commemorated by a memorial cross on Chislehurst Common. The house and grounds are now occupied by a golf club. There are many villa residences in the neighbourhood of Chislehurst.

CHISWICK, an urban district in the Ealing parliamentary division of Middlesex, England, suburban to London, on the Thames, 7½ m. W. by S. of St Paul’s cathedral. Pop. (1901) 29,809. The locality is largely residential, but there are breweries, and the marine engineering works of Messrs Thornycroft on the river. Chiswick House, a seat of the duke of Devonshire, is surrounded by beautiful grounds; here died Fox (1806) and Canning (1827). The gardens near belonged till 1903 to the Royal Horticultural Society. The church of St Nicholas has ancient portions, and in the churchyard is the tomb of William Hogarth the painter, with commemorative lines by David Garrick. Hogarth’s house is close at hand. Chiswick Hall, no longer extant, was formerly a country seat for the masters and sanatorium for the scholars of Westminster school. Here in 1811 the Chiswick Press was founded by Charles Whittingham the elder, an eminent printer (d. 1840).

CHITA, a town of east Siberia, capital of Transbaikalia, on the Siberian railway, 500 m. E. of Irkutsk, on the Chita river, half a mile above its confluence with the Ingoda. Pop. (1883) 12,600; (1897) 11,480. The Imperial Russian Geographical Society has a museum here. Several of the palace revolutionaries, known as Decembrists, were banished to this place from St Petersburg in consequence of the conspiracy of December 1825. The inhabitants support themselves by agriculture and by trade in furs, cattle, hides and tallow bought from the Buriats, and in manufactured wares imported from Russia and west Siberia.

CHITALDRUG, a district and town in the native state of Mysore, India. The district has an area of 4022 sq. m. and a population (1901) of 498,795. It is distinguished by its low rainfall and arid soil. It lies within the valley of the Vedavati or Hagari river, mostly dry in the hot season. Several parallel chains of hills, reaching an extreme height of 3800 ft., cross the district; otherwise it is a plain. The chief crops are cotton and flax; the chief manufactures are blankets and cotton cloth. The west of the district is served by the Southern Mahratta railway. The largest town in the district is Davangere (pop. 10,402). The town of Chitaldrug, which is the district headquarters (pop. 1901, 5792), was formerly a military cantonment, but this was abandoned on account of its unhealthiness. It has massive fortifications erected under Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sahib towards the close of the 18th century; and near it on the west are remains of a city of the 2nd century A.D.

CHITON, the name[1] given to fairly common littoral animals of rather small size which belong to the phylum Mollusca, and, in the possession of a radula in the buccal cavity, resemble more especially the Gastropoda. Their most important characteristic in comparison with the latter is that they are, both in external and internal structure, bilaterally symmetrical. The dorsal integument or mantle bears, not a simple shell, but eight calcareous plates in longitudinal series articulating with each other. The ventral surface forms a flat creeping “foot,” and between mantle and foot is a pallial groove in which there is on each side a series of gills. Originally the Chitons were placed with the limpets, Patella, in Cuvier’s Cyclobranchia, an order of the Gastropoda. In 1876 H. von Jhering demonstrated the affinities

  1. The Gr. χιτών was a garment in the shape of a loose tunic, varying at different periods: see Costume: Greek.