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CHRISTIAN, W.—CHRISTIANIA

Dagmar (Marie), the tsar Alexander III.; and Thyra, Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland. One of his grandsons, Charles, became king of Norway as Haakon VII. in 1905, and another, Constantine, crown prince of Greece, married a sister of the German emperor William II. Christian was also the ruler of Iceland, where he was received with great enthusiasm when he visited the island in 1874. He died at Copenhagen on the 29th of January 1906, and was buried at Roskilde.

See Barfod, Kong Kristian IX.’s Regerings-Dagbog (Copenhagen, 1876); and Hans Majestet Kong Kristian IX. (Copenhagen, 1888).

CHRISTIAN, WILLIAM (1608–1663), Manx politician, a son of Ewan Christian, one of the Manx deemsters, was born on the 14th of April 1608, and was known as Illiam Dhone, or Brown William. In 1648 the lord of the Isle of Man, James Stanley, 7th earl of Derby, appointed Christian his receiver-general; and when in 1651 the earl crossed to England to fight for Charles II. he left him in command of the island militia. Derby was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester, and his famous countess, Charlotte de la Tremouille, who was residing in Man, sought to obtain her husband’s release by negotiating with the victorious parliamentarians for the surrender of the island. At once a revolt headed by Christian broke out, partly as a consequence of this step, partly owing to the discontent caused by some agrarian arrangements recently introduced by the earl. The rebels seized many of the forts; then Christian in his turn entered into negotiations with the parliamentarians; and probably owing to his connivance the island was soon in the power of Colonel Robert Duckenfield, who had brought the parliamentary fleet to Man in October 1651. The countess of Derby was compelled to surrender her two fortresses, Castle Rushen and Peel castle, while Christian remained receiver-general, becoming governor of the island in 1656. Two years later, however, he was accused of misappropriating some money; he fled to England, and in 1660 was arrested in London. Having undergone a year’s imprisonment he returned to Man, hoping that his offence against the earl of Derby would be condoned under the Act of Indemnity of 1661; but, anxious to punish his conduct, Charles, the new earl of Derby, ordered his seizure; he refused to plead, and a packed House of Keys declared that in this case his life and property were at the mercy of the lord of the island. The deemsters then passed sentence, and in accordance therewith Christian was executed by shooting on the 2nd of January 1663. This arbitrary act angered Charles II. and his advisers; the deemsters and others were punished, and some reparation was made to Christian’s family. Christian is chiefly celebrated through the Manx ballad Baase Illiam Dhone, which has been translated into English by George Borrow, and through the references to him in Sir Walter Scott’s Peveril of the Peak.

See A. W. Moore, History of the Isle of Man (1900).

CHRISTIAN OF BRUNSWICK (1590–1626), bishop of Halberstadt and a general during the earlier part of the Thirty Years’ War, a younger son of Henry Julius, duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was born at Gröningen on the 20th of September 1599. Having succeeded his father as “bishop” of Halberstadt in 1616, he obtained some experience of warfare under Maurice, prince of Orange, in the Netherlands. Raising an army he entered the service of Frederick V., elector palatine of the Rhine, just after that prince had been driven from Bohemia; glorying in his chivalrous devotion to Frederick’s wife Elizabeth, he attacked the lands of the elector of Mainz and the bishoprics of Westphalia. After some successes he was defeated by Tilly at Höchst in June 1622; then, dismissed from Frederick’s service, he entered that of the United Provinces, losing an arm at the battle of Fleurus, a victory he did much to win. In 1623 he gathered an army and broke into lower Saxony, but was beaten by Tilly at Stadtlohn and driven back to the Netherlands. When in 1625 Christian IV., king of Denmark, entered the arena of the war, he took the field again in the Protestant interest, but after some successes he died at Wolfenbüttel on the 16th of June 1626. Christian, who loved to figure as “the friend of God, the enemy of the priests,” is sometimes called “the mad bishop,” and was a merciless, coarse, and blasphemous man.

CHRISTIAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, the name assumed by a religious organization founded at Zion City near Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., in 1896, by John Alexander Dowie (q.v.). Its members added to the usual tenets of Christianity a special belief in faith-healing, and laid much stress on united consecration services and the threefold immersion of believers. To assist Dowie, assistant overseers were appointed, and the operations of the community included religious, educational and commercial departments. Small branches sprang up in other parts of the United States, Mexico, Canada, Europe and Australasia. At the end of 1901 there were nearly 12,000 baptized believers. After 1903 considerable dissension arose among Dowie’s followers: he was deposed in 1906; and after his death (1907) the city gradually became a community of normal type.

CHRISTIAN CONNECTION, a denomination of Christians in North America formed by secession, under James O’Kelly (1735–1826), of members of the Methodist Episcopal Church in North Carolina in 1793. The movement resembled those under the Campbells and Stone in Kentucky in 1801–1804, and in Lyndon, Vermont, among the Baptists in 1800. The predisposing cause in each case was the desire to be free from the “bondage of creed.” Some of O’Kelly’s followers joined the Disciples of Christ (q.v.). Their form of church government is Congregational; they take the Bible as the sole rule of faith and practice, and while adopting immersion as the proper mode of baptism, freely welcome Christians of every sect to their communion. They number about 100,000 members, mainly in the states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The original seceders in Virginia and North Carolina bore for a time the name “Republican Methodists,” and then called themselves simply “Christians,” a designation which with the pronunciation “Christ-yans” is still often applied to them. Their position is curiously akin to that outlined by William Chillingworth (q.v.) in his famous work The Religion of Protestants (1637–1638).

CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOUR SOCIETIES, organizations formed for the purpose of promoting spiritual life among young people. They date from 1881, in which year Dr Francis E. Clark (q.v.) formed a Young People’s Society of Christian Endeavour in his (Congregational) church at Portland, Maine, U.S.A. The idea was taken up elsewhere in America and spread to other countries, till, under the presidency of Dr Clark, a huge number of affiliated societies came into operation throughout the world. They take as their motto “For Christ and the Church,” and have done much, especially in the non-episcopal churches, to prepare young men and women for active services in the Church. The organization is international and interdenominational, a World’s Christian Endeavour Union being formed in 1895. The members do not form a separate denomination, but remain attached to their respective churches, being grouped in voluntary district federations.

CHRISTIANIA (officially Kristiania), the capital of Norway, forming a separate county (amt), and the seat of a bishopric (stift). Pop. (1901) 229,101. It lies on the south-eastern coast, at the head of Christiania Fjord, about 80 m. from the open waters of the Skagerrack, is 59° 54′ N. (about the latitude of the southern extremity of the Shetland Islands) and 10° 45′ E., mainly on the west bank of the small Aker river. The situation is very beautiful, pine-wooded hills rising sharply behind the city, while several islands stud the fjord. The town is mainly modern, having increased rapidly in and since the second half of the 19th century, when brick and stone largely superseded wood as the building material. It is the seat of government, of the supreme courts, of the parliament (Storthing), and of a university. The harbour is of two parts, the Björvik, where the larger steamers lie, and the Pipervik, west of this. On the promontory intervening between these two inlets stands the old fortress of Akershus, occupied as an arsenal and prison, and having a pleasant promenade upon its ramparts. Until 1719 it was a royal palace. At the head of the Björvik the principal railway station (Hovedbanegaard) stands in the Jernbanetorv (railway square), and north-west from this runs the principal street, Karl-Johans-gade. In this street, passing the Vor Frelsers Kirke (Church of our Saviour), the Storthings-Bygning