hands of the English under General Carnac in 1763 after a prolonged resistance which caused considerable loss to the assailants. A treaty with the nawab of Oudh was signed here by Warren Hastings on behalf of the East India Company in September 1781.
CHUNCHO, a tribe of South American Indians, living in the forests east of Cuzco, central Peru. They are a fierce and savage people who have preserved their independence. They are said to be akin to their neighbours the Antis. They dwell in communal houses, and live chiefly by hunting. Chuncho has also been used to describe one of three aboriginal stocks of Peru, the others being Quichua and Aymara.
CH‛UNGK‛ING, a city in the province of Szech‘uen, China, on the left bank of the Yangtsze, at its point of junction with the Kialing, in 29° 33′ N., and 107° 2′ E. It is surrounded by a crenelated stone wall, which is 5 m. in circumference and is pierced by nine gates. It is the commercial centre for the trade, not only of Szech’uen, but of all south-western China. The one highway between Szech’uen and the eastern provinces is the Yangtsze river route, as owing to the mountainous nature of the intervening country land transit is almost impracticable. The import trade brought up by large junks from Ich‘ang, and consisting of cotton cloth, yarn, metals and foreign manufactures, centres here, and is distributed by a class of smaller vessels up the various rivers of the provinces. Native produce, such as yellow silk, white wax, hides, rhubarb, musk and opium, is here collected and repacked for conveyance to Hankow, Shanghai or other parts of the empire. The city was opened to foreign trade by convention with the British government in 1891, with the proviso, however, that foreign steamers should not be at liberty to trade there until Chinese-owned steamers had succeeded in ascending the river. This restriction was abolished by the Japanese treaty of 1895, which declared Ch‛ungk‛ing open on the same terms as other ports. After that date the problem of steam navigation on the section of the river between Ich‘ang and Ch‛ungk‛ing occupied attention. By 1907 a small steamer had been navigated up the rapids, but it remained a question how far steam navigation could be made a practical success. The trade was carried on by native craft, hauled up against the strength of the current in the worst places by a line of trackers on the bank. The great rise in the river during the summer months, at Ch‛ungk‛ing ordinarily 70 ft. and occasionally as much as 96 ft., added to the difficulties. The population of Ch‛ungk‛ing, including the city of Kiangpei on the opposite bank of the Kialing river, is about 300,000. The foreign residents are very few. In 1898 the value of the trade passing through the maritime customs was £2,614,000, and in 1904 £4,214,568, of which imports counted for £2,644,777 and exports for £1,569,791.
CHUPATTY, an Anglo-Indian term for an unleavened cake of bread. The word represents the Hindustani chapati, and is applied to the usual form of native bread, the staple food of upper India. The chupatty is generally made of coarse wheaten flour, patted flat with the hand, and baked upon a griddle. In the troubled times that preceded the mutiny of 1857 chupatties were circulated from village to village throughout India, apparently as a token of discontent.
CHUPRIYA (sometimes written Tiupriia; Croatian Cuprÿa), the capital of the Morava department of Servia, on the railway from Belgrade to Nish, and on the right bank of the Morava, which is navigable up to this point by small sailing-vessels. Pop. (1900) about 6000. Some of the finest Servian cattle are bred in the neighbouring lowlands, and the town has a considerable trade in plums and other farm-produce. A light railway, leading to several important collieries, runs for 13 m. through the beech-forests and mountains on the east. Cloth is woven at Parachin, 5 m. S.; and Yagodina, 8 m. W. by N., is an important market town. Among the foothills of the Golubinye Range, 7 m. E.N.E., is the 14th-century Ravanitsa monastery, with a ruined fort and an old church—their walls and frescoes pitted by Turkish bullets. There is a legend that here the Servian tsar Lazar (1374–1389) was visited by an angel, who bade him choose between an earthly and a heavenly crown. In accordance with his choice, Lazar fell fighting at Kossovo, and was buried at Ravanitsa; his body being afterwards transferred, through fear of the Turks, to another Ravanitsa, in eastern Slavonia. His crucifix is treasured among the monastic archives, which also contain a charter signed by Peter the Great of Russia (1672–1725). Manasia (Manasiya), the still more celebrated foundation of Stephen, the son and successor of Lazar, lies 12 m. N. of Ravanitsa. Built in a cleft among the hills which line the river Resava, an affluent of the Morava, this monastery is enclosed in a fortress, whose square towers, and curtain without loopholes or battlements, remain largely intact. Within the curtain stand the monastic buildings, a large garden and a cruciform chapel, with many curious old stone carvings, half hidden beneath whitewash. Numerous gifts from the Russian court, such as gospels lettered in gold and silver relief, or jewelled crucifixes, are preserved on the spot; but the valuable library was removed, in the 15th century, to Mount Athos.
CHUQUISACA, a department of S.E. Bolivia, bounded N. by Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, E. by Santa Cruz and Brazil, S. by Tarija, and W. by Potosi. It lies partly upon the eastern plateau of Bolivia and partly upon the great plains of the upper La Plata basin; area, 26,418 sq. m. The Pilcomayo, a large tributary of the Paraguay, crosses N.W. to S.E. the western part of the department. The climate of the lowlands is hot, humid and unhealthy, but that of the plateau is salubrious, though subject to greater extremes in temperature and rainfall. The seasons are sharply divided into wet and dry, the eastern plains becoming great lagoons during the wet season, and parched deserts during the dry. The mineral resources are important, but are less developed than those of Potosi and Oruro. Grazing is the principal industry of the plains, and cattle, sheep, goats and llamas are raised and cereals grown in the fertile valleys of the plateau. Three rough highways connect the department with its neighbours on the N. and W., and pack animals are the common means of transporting merchandise. The population was estimated at 204,434 m 1900, and is largely composed of Indians and mestizos. The plateau Indians are generally Aymaras, but on the eastern plains there are considerable settlements of partly civilized Chiriguanos, of Guarani origin. The department is divided into four provinces, the greater part of the lowlands being unsettled and without effective political organization. Its principal towns are Sucré, Camargo, Padilla and Yotala.
CHURCH, FREDERICK EDWIN (1826–1900), American landscape painter, was born at Hartford, Connecticut, on the 4th of May 1826. He was a pupil of Thomas Cole at Catskill, New York, where his first pictures were painted. Developing unusual technical dexterity, Church from the beginning sought for his themes such marvels of nature as Niagara Falls, the Andes, and tropical forests—he visited South America in 1853 and 1857,—volcanoes in eruption, and icebergs, the beauties of which he portrayed with great skill in the management of light, colour, and the phenomena of rainbow, mist and sunset, rendering these plausible and effective. In their time these paintings awoke the wildest admiration and sold for extravagant prices, collectors in the United States and in Europe eagerly seeking them, though their vogue has now passed away. In 1849 Church was made a member of the National Academy of Design. His “Great Fall at Niagara” (1857) is in the Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington, D.C., and a large “Twilight” is in the Walters Gallery, Baltimore, Maryland. Among his other canvases are “Andes of Ecuador” (1855), “Heart of the Andes” (1859), “Cotopaxi” (1862), “Jerusalem” (1870), and “Morning in the Tropics” (1877). He died on the 7th of April 1900, at his house on the Hudson river above New York City, where he had lived and worked for many years. He was the most prominent member of the so-called “Hudson River School” of American artists.
CHURCH, GEORGE EARL (1835–1910), American geographer, was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, on the 7th of December 1835. He was educated as a civil engineer, and was early engaged on the Hoosac Tunnel. In 1858 he joined an exploring expedition to South America. During the American Civil War he