four letters written by him (one to his brother Marcus, and three to his freedman Tiro) and a short paper, De Petitione Consulatus (on canvassing for the consulship), addressed to his brother in 64. Some consider this the work of a rhetorician of later date. A few hexameters by him on the twelve signs of the Zodiac are quoted by Ausonius.
Cicero in several of his Letters (ed. Tyrrell and Purser); pro Sestio, 31; Caesar, Bell. Gal.; Appian, Bell. Civ. iv. 20; Dio Cassius, xl. 7, xlvii. 10; text of the De Petit, Cons. in A. Eussner, Commentariolum Petitionis (1872), see also R. Y. Tyrrell in Hermathena, v. (1877), and A. Beltrami, De Commentariolo Petitionis Q. Ciceroni vindicando (1892); G. Boissier, Cicero and His Friends (Eng. trans., 1897), especially pp. 235-241.
3. Marcus Tullius Cicero, only son of the orator and his wife Terentia, was born in 65 B.C. At the age of seventeen he served with Pompey in Greece, and commanded a squadron of cavalry at the battle of Pharsalus. In 45 he was sent to Athens to study rhetoric and philosophy, but abandoned himself to a life of dissipation. It was during his stay at Athens that his father dedicated the de Officiis to him. After the murder of Caesar (44) he attracted the notice of Brutus, by whom he was offered the post of military tribune, in which capacity he rendered good service to the republican cause. After the battle of Philippi (42), he took refuge with Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, where the remnants of the republican forces were collected. He took advantage of the amnesty granted by the treaty of Misenum (39) to return to Rome, where he took no part in public affairs, but resumed his former dissipated habits. In spite of this, he received signal marks of distinction from Octavian, who not only nominated him augur, but accepted him as his colleague in the consulship (30). He had the satisfaction of carrying out the decree which ordered that all the statues of Antony should be demolished, and thus “the divine justice reserved the completion of Antony’s punishment for the house of Cicero” (Plutarch). He was subsequently appointed proconsul of Asia or Syria, but nothing further is known of his life. In spite of his debauchery, there is no doubt that he was a man of considerable education and no mean soldier, while Brutus, in a letter to his father (Epp. ad Brutum, ii. 3), even goes so far as to say that the son would be capable of attaining the highest honours without borrowing from the father’s reputation.
See Plutarch, Cicero, Brutus; Appian, Bell. Civ. ii. 20. 51, iv. 20; Dio Cassius xlv. 15, xlvi. 18, li. 19; Cicero’s Letters (ed. Tyrrell and Purser); G. Boissier, Cicero and His Friends (Eng. trans., 1897), pp. 104-107.
4. Quintus Tullius Cicero (c. 67–43 B.C.), son of Quintus Tullius Cicero (brother of the orator). He accompanied his uncle Marcus to Cilicia, and, in the hope of obtaining a reward, repaid his kindness by informing Caesar of his intention of leaving Italy. After the battle of Pharsalus he joined his father in abusing his uncle as responsible for the condition of affairs, hoping thereby to obtain pardon from Caesar. After the death of Caesar he attached himself to Mark Antony, but, owing to some fancied slight, he deserted to Brutus and Cassius. He was included in the proscription lists, and was put to death with his father in 43. In his last moments he refused under torture to disclose his father’s hiding-place. His father, who in his concealment was a witness of what was taking place, thereupon gave himself up, stipulating that he and his son should be executed at the same time.
See Cicero, ad Att. x. 4. 6, 7. 3; xiv. 20. 5; Dio Cassius xlvii. 10.
CICERONE, a guide, one who conducts visitors to museums, galleries, &c., and explains matters of archaeological, antiquarian, historic or artistic interest. The word is presumably taken from Marcus Tullius Cicero, as a type of learning and eloquence. The New English Dictionary finds examples of the use earlier in English than Italian, the earliest quotation being from Addison’s Dialogues on Medals (published posthumously 1726). It appears that the word was first applied to “learned antiquarians who show and explain to foreigners the antiquities and curiosities of the country” (quotation of 1762 in the New English Dictionary).
CICHLID (Cichlidae), a family of Acanthopterygian fishes, related to the perches and wrasses, and confined to the fresh and brackish waters of Central and South America, Africa, Syria, and India and Ceylon. It has recently assumed special importance through the large number of genera and species, many of them showing extraordinary modifications of the dentition, which have been discovered in tropical Africa, especially in the great lakes Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa. About 180 species are known from Africa (with Syria and Madagascar), 150 from America, and 3 from India and Ceylon. They were formerly known under the inappropriate name of Chromides.
These fish are further remarkable for their nursing habits. It was formerly believed that the male takes charge of the eggs, and later the young, by sheltering them in the mouth and pharynx. This may still be true of some of the American species, but a long series of recent observations have shown that this most efficacious parental care devolves invariably on the female in the African and Syrian species. We are now acquainted with a large number of species in which this extraordinary habit has been observed, the number having lately been greatly increased by the collections made in Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria.
L. Lortet had described a fish from Lake Tiberias in which he believed he had observed the male take up the eggs after their deposition and retain them in his mouth and pharynx long after eclosion, in fact until the young are able to shift for themselves, and this fish he named Chromis paterfamilias. A. Günther had also ascribed the same sex to a fish from Natal, Chromis philander, observed by N. Abraham to have similar habits. G. A. Boulenger has since had an opportunity to examine the latter specimen and found it to be a female, as in all other nursing individuals from various parts of Africa, previously observed by himself; whilst J. Pellegrin hasthe female sex of a specimen with eggs in the mouth presented to the Paris museum by Lortet as his Chromis paterfamilias ( = Tilapia simonis). Further observations by Pellegrin on Tilapia galilaea and Pelmatochromis lateralis, by E. Schoeller on Paratilapia multicolor, have led to the same result.
It therefore remains unproven whether in any of the African Cichlidae the buccal “incubation,” as it has been called by Pellegrin, devolves on the male; the instances previously adduced being unsupported by the only trustworthy evidence—an examination of the genital glands.
The relative size and number of the eggs thus taken charge of vary very much according to the species. Thus they may be moderately large and numerous (100 to 200) in Tilapia nilotica and galilaea, larger and only about 30 in number in Paratilapia multicolor, while in Tropheus moorii, a fish measuring only 110 mm., the eggs filling the mouth and pharynx measure 4 mm. in diameter and are only four in number, they being proportionally the largest Teleostome eggs known. In Paratilapia pfefferi, a fish measuring 75 mm., the eggs found in the pharynx were only about a dozen in number, and they measure 2½ mm. in diameter. In Tilapia dardennii, which grows to a length of 240 mm., a score of eggs fills the mouth and pharynx, and each measures 5 to 6 mm. in diameter, an enormous size for so small a fish.
Pellegrin has made the interesting observation on Tilapia galilaea that while the eggs are developing in the bucco-pharyngeal cavity the ovarian eggs are rapidly growing towards maturity, so that a fresh deposition of ova may almost immediately follow the release of the young fishes from maternal care. (G. A. B.)
CICISBEO (Ital.; of uncertain origin; perhaps an inversion of bel cece, “beautiful chick (pea),” or from Fr. chiche beau, with same meaning), the term in Italy from the 17th century onwards for a dangler about women. The cicisbeo was the professed gallant of a married woman, who attended her at all public entertainments, it being considered unfashionable for the husband to be escort.
CICOGNARA, LEOPOLDO, Count (1767–1834), Italian archaeologist and writer on art, was born at Ferrara on the 17th of November 1767. Mathematical and physical science diverted him a while; but his bent was decided, and not even the notice of such men as Spallanzani and Scarpa could make a savant of him. A residence of some years at Rome, devoted to painting