the evidence against the view that the deposit is mainly a Chalk residue, and brings forward a good deal of evidence to show that many patches of the Clay-with-Flints lie upon the same plane and may be directly associated with Reading Beds. He concludes “that the material of the Clay-with-Flints has been chiefly and almost entirely derived from Eocene clay, with addition of some flints from the Chalk; that its presence is an indication of the previous existence of Lower Eocene Beds on the same site and nearly at the same relative level, and, consequently, that comparatively little Chalk has been removed from beneath it. Finally, I think that the tracts of Clay-with-Flints have been much more extensive than they are now” (loc. cit. p. 159).
It is noteworthy that the Clay-with-Flints is developed over an area which is just beyond the limits of the ice sheets of the Glacial epoch, and the peculiar conditions of late Pliocene and Pleistocene times; involving heavy rains, snow and frost, may have had much to do with the mingling of the Tertiary and Chalky material. Besides the occurrence in surface patches, Clay-with-Flints is very commonly to be observed descending in “pipes” often to a considerable depth into the Chalk; here, if anywhere, the residual chalk portion of the deposit should be found, and it is surmised that a thin layer of very dark clay with darkly stained flints, which appears in contact with the sides and bottom of the pipe, may represent all there is of insoluble residue.
A somewhat similar deposit, a “conglomérat de silex” or “argue à silex,” occurs at the base of the Eocene on the southern and western borders of the Paris basin, in the neighbourhood of Chartres, Thimerais and Sancerrois. (J. A. H.)
CLAZOMENAE (mod. Kelisman), an ancient town of Ionia and a member of the Ionian Dodecapolis (Confederation of Twelve Cities), on the Gulf of Smyrna, about 20 m. W. of that city. Though not in existence before the arrival of the Ionians in Asia, its original founders were largely settlers from Phlius and Cleonae. It stood originally on the isthmus connecting the mainland with the peninsula on which Erythrae stood; but the inhabitants, alarmed by the encroachments of the Persians, removed to one of the small islands of the bay, and there established their city. This island was connected with the mainland by Alexander the Great by means of a pier, the remains of which are still visible. During the 5th century it was for some time subject to the Athenians, but about the middle of the Peloponnesian war (412 B.C.) it revolted. After a brief resistance, however, it again acknowledged the Athenian supremacy, and repelled a Lacedaemonian attack. Under the Romans Clazomenae was included in the province of Asia, and enjoyed an immunity from taxation. The site can still be made out, in the neighbourhood of Vourla, but nearly every portion of its ruins has been removed. It was the birthplace of the philosopher Anaxagoras. It is famous for its painted terra-cotta sarcophagi, which are the finest monuments of Ionian painting in the 6th century B.C. (E. Gr.)
CLEANTHES (c. 301–232 or 252 B.C.), Stoic philosopher, born at Assos in the Troad, was originally a boxer. With but four drachmae in his possession he came to Athens, where he listened first to the lectures of Crates the Cynic, and then to those of Zeno, the Stoic, supporting himself meanwhile by working all night as water-carrier to a gardener (hence his nickname Φρεάντλης). His power of patient endurance, or perhaps his slowness, earned him the title of “the Ass”; but such was the esteem awakened by his high moral qualities that, on the death of Zeno in 263, he became the leader of the school. He continued, however, to support himself by the labour of his own hands. Among his pupils were his successor, Chrysippus, and Antigonus, king of Macedon, from whom he accepted 2000 minae. The manner of his death was characteristic. A dangerous ulcer had compelled him to fast for a time. Subsequently he continued his abstinence, saying that, as he was already half-way on the road to death, he would not trouble to retrace his steps.
Cleanthes produced very little that was original, though he wrote some fifty works, of which fragments have come down to us. The principal is the large portion of the Hymn to Zeus which has been preserved in Stobaeus. He regarded the sun as the abode of God, the intelligent providence, or (in accordance with Stoical materialism) the vivifying fire or aether of the universe. Virtue, he taught, is life according to nature; but pleasure is not according to nature. He originated a new theory as to the individual existence of the human soul; he held that the degree of its vitality after death depends upon the degree of its vitality in this life. The principal fragments of Cleanthes’s works are contained in Diogenes Laertius and Stobaeus; some may be found in Cicero and Seneca.
See G. C. Mohinke, Kleanthes der Stoiker (Greifswald, 1814); C. Wachsmuth, Commentationes de Zenone Citiensi et Cleanthe Assio (Göttingen, 1874–1875); A. C. Pearson, Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes (Camb., 1891); article by E. Wellmann in Ersch and Gruber’s Allgemeine Encyklopädie; R. Hirzel, Untersuchungen zu Ciceros philosophischen Schriften, ii. (1882), containing a vindication of the originality of Cleanthes; A. B. Krische, Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der alten Philosophie (1840); also works quoted under Stoics.
CLEARCHUS, the son of Rhamphias, a Spartan general and condottiere. Born about the middle of the 5th century B.C., Clearchus was sent with a fleet to the Hellespont in 411 and became governor (ἀρμοστής) of Byzantium, of which town he was proxenus. His severity, however, made him unpopular, and in his absence the gates were opened to the Athenian besieging army under Alcibiades (409). Subsequently appointed by the ephors to settle the political dissensions then rife at Byzantium and to protect the city and the neighbouring Greek colonies from Thracian attacks, he made himself tyrant of Byzantium, and, when declared an outlaw and driven thence by a Spartan force, he fled to Cyrus. In the “expedition of the ten thousand” undertaken by Cyrus to dethrone his brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, Clearchus led the Peloponnesians, who formed the right wing of Cyrus’s army at the battle of Cunaxa (401). On Cyrus’s death Clearchus assumed the chief command and conducted the retreat, until, being treacherously seized with his fellow-generals by Tissaphernes, he was handed over to Artaxerxes and executed (Thuc. viii. 8. 39, 80; Xen. Hellenica, i. 3. 15-19; Anabasis, i. ii.; Diodorus xiv. 12. 19-26). In character he was a typical product of the Spartan educational system. He was a warrior to the finger-tips (πολεμικὸς καὶ φιλοπόλεμος ἐσχάτως. Xen. Anab. ii. 6. 1), and his tireless energy, unfaltering courage and strategic ability made him an officer of no mean order. But he seems to have had no redeeming touch of refinement or humanity.
CLEARFIELD, a borough and the county-seat of Clearfield county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the W. branch of the Susquehanna river, in the W. central part of the state. Pop. (1890) 2248; (1900) 5081 (310 foreign-born); (1910) 6851. It is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, the Pennsylvania, and the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg railways. The borough is about 1105 ft. above sea-level, in a rather limited space between the hills, which command picturesque views of the narrow valley. The river runs through the borough. Coal and fireclay abound in the vicinity, and these, with leather, iron, timber and the products of the fertile soil, are the bases of its leading industries. Before the arrival of the whites the place had been cleared of timber (whence its name), and in 1805 it was chosen as a site for the county-seat of the newly erected county and laid out as a town; in 1840 it was incorporated as a borough.
CLEARING-HOUSE, the general term for a central institution employed in connexion with large and interrelated businesses for the purpose of facilitating the settlement of accounts.
Banking.—The London Clearing-House was established between 1750 and 1770 as a place where the clerks of the bankers of the city of London could assemble daily to exchange with one another the cheques drawn upon and bills payable at their respective houses. Before the clearing-house existed, each banker had to send a clerk to the places of business of all the other bankers in London to collect the sums payable by them in respect of cheques and bills; and it is obvious that much