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of weak pressure gradients and high temperature, and are commonly associated with the rainy season, being most common at the beginning and end of the regular rains. In many places, thunderstorms occur daily throughout their season, with extraordinary regularity and great intensity.

Cloudiness.—Taken as a whole, the tropics are not favoured with such clear skies as is often supposed. Cloudiness varies about as does the rainfall. The maximum is in the equatorial belt of calms and rains, where the sky is always more or less cloudy. The minimum is in the trade latitudes, where fair skies as a whole prevail. The equatorial cloud belt moves north and south after the sun. Wholly clear days are very rare in the tropics generally, especially near the equator, and during the rainy season heavy clouds usually cover the sky. Wholly overcast, dull days, such as are common in the winter of the temperate zone, occur frequently only on tropical coasts in the vicinity of cold ocean currents, as on the coast of Peru and on parts of the west coast of Africa.

Intensity of Sky-Light and Twilight.—The light from tropical skies by day is trying, and the intense insolation, together with the reflection from the ground, increases the general dazzling glare under a tropical sun. During much of the time smoke from forest and prairie fires (in the dry season), dust (in deserts), and water-vapour give the sky a pale whitish appearance. In the heart of the trade-wind belts at sea the sky is of a deeper blue. Twilight within the tropics is shorter than in higher latitudes, but the coming on of night is less sudden than is generally assumed.

EB1911 - Climate Fig. 4.—Annual march of temperature.jpg
Fig. 4.—Annual march of temperature: equatorial type. A, Africa,
interior; B, Batavia; J, Jaluit, Marshall Islands.

Climatic Subdivisions.—The rational basis for a classification of the larger climatic provinces of the torrid zone is found in the general wind systems, and in their control over rainfall. Following this scheme there are: (1) the equatorial belt; (2) the trade-wind belts; (3) the monsoon belts. In each of these subdivisions there are modifications due to marine and continental influences. In general, both seasonal and diurnal phenomena are more marked in continental interiors than on the oceans, islands and windward coasts. Further, the effect of altitude is so important that another group should be added to include (4) mountain climates.

1. The Equatorial Belt.—Within a few degrees of the equator, and when not interfered with by other controls, the annual curve of temperature has two maxima following the two zenithal positions of the sun, and two minima at about the time of the solstices. This equatorial type of annual march of temperature is illustrated in the three curves for the interior of Africa, Batavia and Jaluit (fig. 4). The greatest range is shown in the curve for the interior of Africa; the curve for Batavia illustrates insular conditions with less range, and the oceanic type for Jaluit, Marshall Islands, gives the least range. This double maximum is not a universal phenomenon, there being many cases where but a single maximum occurs.

EB1911 - Climate Fig. 5.—Annual march of rainfall.jpg

Fig. 5.—Annual march of rainfall in the

 S.A, South Africa. M,  Mexico.
 Q,  Quito. H,  Hilo.
 S.P., São Paulo. P.D., Port Darwin.

As the belt of rains swings back and forth across the equator after the sun, there should be two rainy seasons with the sun vertical, and two dry seasons when the sun is farthest from the zenith, and while the trades blow. These conditions prevail on the equator, and as far north and south of the equator (about 10°–12°) as sufficient time elapses between the two zenithal positions of the sun for the two rainy seasons to be distinguished from one another. In this belt, under normal conditions, there is therefore no dry season of any considerable duration. The double rainy season is clearly seen in equatorial Africa and in parts of equatorial South America. The maxima lag somewhat behind the vertical sun, coming in April and November, and are unsymmetrically developed, the first maximum being the principal one. The minima are also unsymmetrically developed, and the so-called “dry seasons” are seldom wholly rainless. This rainfall type with double maxima and minima has been called the equatorial type, and is illustrated in the following curves for South Africa and Quito (fig. 5). The monthly rainfalls are given in thousandths of the annual mean. The mean annual rainfall at Quito is 42.12 in. These double rainy and dry seasons are easily modified by other conditions, as by the monsoons of the Indo-Australian area, so that there is no rigid belt of equatorial rains extending around the world. In South America, east of the Andes, the distinction between rainy and dry seasons is often much confused. In this equatorial belt the cloudiness is high throughout the year, averaging .7 to .8, with a relatively small annual period. The curve following, E (fig. 6), is fairly typical, but the annual period varies greatly under local controls.


EB1911 - Climate Fig. 6.—Annual march of cloudiness.jpg

Fig. 6.—Annual march of cloudiness in the tropics.
E, Equatorial type; M, Monsoon type.

At greater distances from the equator than about 10° or 12° the sun is still vertical twice a year within the tropics, but the interval between these two dates is so short that the two rainy seasons merge into one, in summer, and there is also but one dry season, in winter. This is the so-called tropical type of rainfall, and is found where the trade belts are encroached upon by the equatorial rains during the migration of these rains into each hemisphere. It is illustrated in the curves for São Paulo, Brazil, and for the city of Mexico (fig. 5). The mean annual rainfall at São Paulo is 54.13 in. and at Mexico 22.99 in. The districts of tropical rains of this type lie along the equatorial margins of the torrid zone, outside of the latitudes of the equatorial type of rainfall. The rainy season becomes shorter with increasing distance from the equator. The weather of the opposite seasons is strongly contrasted. The single dry season lasts longer than either dry season in the equatorial belt, reaching eight months in typical cases, with the wet season lasting four months. The lowlands often become dry and parched during the long dry trade-wind season (winter)