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but may unite with three of chlorine, which never combines with more than a single atom of hydrogen; an atom of phosphorus unites with only three atoms of hydrogen, but with five of chlorine, or with four of hydrogen and one of iodine; and the chlorides corresponding to the higher oxides of lead, nickel, manganese and arsenic, PbO2, Ni2O3, MnO2 and AS2O5 do not exist as stable compounds, but the lower chlorides, PbCl2, NiCl2, MnCl2 and AsCl3, are very stable.

The valency of an element is usually expressed by dashes or Roman numerals placed on the right of its symbol, thus: H′, O″, B‴, CIV, PV, MoVI; but in constructing graphic formulae the symbols of the elements are written with as many lines attached to each symbol as the element which it represents has units of affinity.

The periodic law (see Element) permits a grouping of the elements according to their valency as follows:—Group O.: helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon appear to be devoid of valency. Group I.: the alkali metals Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and also Ag, monovalent; Cu, monovalent and divalent; Au, monovalent and trivalent. Group II.: the alkaline earth metals Ca, Sr, Ba, and also Be (Gl), Mg, Zn, Cd, divalent; Hg, monovalent and divalent. Group III.: B, trivalent; Al, trivalent, but possibly also tetra- or penta-valent; Ga, divalent and trivalent; In, mono-, di- and tri-valent; Tl, monovalent and trivalent. Group IV.: C, Si, Ge, Zr, Th, tetravalent; Ti, tetravalent and hexavalent; Sn, Pb, divalent and tetravalent; Ce, trivalent and tetravalent. Group V.: N, trivalent and pentavalent, but divalent in nitric oxide; P, As, Sb, Bi, trivalent and pentavalent, the last being possibly divalent in BiO and BiCl2. Group VI.: O, usually divalent, but tetravalent and possibly hexavalent in oxonium and other salts; S, Se, Te, di-, tetra- and hexa-valent; Cr, di-, tri- and hexa-valent; Mo, W, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-valent. Group VII.: H(?), monovalent; the halogens F, Cl, Br, I, usually monovalent, but possibly also tri- and pentavalent; Mn, divalent and trivalent, and possibly heptavalent in permanganates. Group VIII.: Fe, Co, divalent and trivalent; Ni, divalent; Os, Ru, hexavalent and octavalent; Pd, Pt, divalent and tetravalent; Ir, tri-, tetra- and hexa-valent. (See also Valency.)

Constitutional Formulae.—Graphic or constitutional formulae are employed to express the manner in which the constituent atoms of compounds are associated together; for example, the trioxide of sulphur is usually regarded as a compound of an atom of hexad sulphur with three atoms of dyad oxygen, and this hypothesis is illustrated by the graphic formula


When this oxide is brought into contact with water it combines with it forming sulphuric acid, H2SO4.

In this compound only two of the oxygen atoms are wholly associated with the sulphur atom, each of the remaining oxygen atoms being united by one of its affinities to the sulphur atoms, and by the remaining affinity to an atom of hydrogen; thus—

EB1911 Chemistry - sulphuric acid.jpg

The graphic formula of a sulphate is readily deduced by remembering that the hydrogen atoms are partially or entirely replaced. Thus acid sodium sulphate, normal sodium sulphate, and zinc sulphate have the formulae

EB1911 Chemistry - Sulphates.jpg

Again, the reactions of acetic acid, C2H4O2, show that the four atoms of hydrogen which it contains have not all the same function, and also that the two atoms of oxygen have different functions; the graphic formula which we are led to assign to acetic acid, viz.

EB1911 Chemistry - acetic acid.jpg

serves in a measure to express this, three of the atoms of hydrogen being represented as associated with one of the atoms of carbon, whilst the fourth atom is associated with an atom of oxygen which is united by a single affinity to the second atom of carbon, to which, however, the second atom of oxygen is united by both of its affinities. It is not to be supposed that there are any actual bonds of union between the atoms; graphic formulae such as these merely express the hypothesis that certain of the atoms in a compound come directly within the sphere of attraction of certain other atoms, and only indirectly within the sphere of attraction of others,—an hypothesis to which chemists are led by observing that it is often possible to separate a group of elements from a compound, and to displace it by other elements or groups of elements.

Rational formulae of a much simpler description than these graphic formulae are generally employed. For instance, sulphuric acid is usually represented by the formula SO2(OH)2, which indicates that it may be regarded as a compound of the group SO2 with twice the group OH. Each of these OH groups is equivalent in combining or displacing power to a monad element, since it consists of an atom of dyad oxygen associated with a single atom of monad hydrogen, so that in this case the SO2 group is equivalent to an atom of a dyad element. This formula for sulphuric acid, however, merely represents such facts as that it is possible to displace an atom of hydrogen and an atom of oxygen in sulphuric acid by a single atom of chlorine, thus forming the compound SO3HCl; and that by the action of water on the compound SO2Cl2 twice the group OH, or water minus an atom of hydrogen, is introduced in place of the two monad atoms of chlorine—

SO2Cl2 + 2HOH = SO2(OH)2 + 2HCl.
Water.  Sulphuric acid.

Constitutional formulae like these, in fact, are nothing more than symbolic expressions of the character of the compounds which they represent, the arrangement of symbols in a certain definite manner being understood to convey certain information with regard to the compounds represented.

Groups of two or more atoms like SO2 and OH, which are capable of playing the part of elementary atoms (that is to say, which can be transferred from compound to compound), are termed compound radicals, the elementary atoms being simple radicals. Thus, the atom of hydrogen is a monad simple radical, the atom of oxygen a dyad simple radical, whilst the group OH is a monad compound radical.

It is often convenient to regard compounds as formed upon certain types; alcohol, for example, may be said to be a compound formed upon the water type, that is to say, a compound formed from water by displacing one of the atoms of hydrogen by the group of elements C2H5, thus—

O H O C2H5
Water Alcohol.

Constitutional formulae become of preponderating importance when we consider the more complicated inorganic and especially organic compounds. Their full significance is treated in the section of this article dealing with organic chemistry, and in the articles Isomerism and Stereo-isomerism.

Chemical Action.—Chemical change or chemical action may be said to take place whenever changes occur which involve an alteration in the composition of molecules, and may be the result of the action of agents such as heat, electricity or light, or of two or more elements or compounds upon each other.

Three kinds of changes are to be distinguished, viz. changes which involve combination, changes which involve decomposition or separation, and changes which involve at the same time both decomposition and combination. Changes of the first and second kind, according to our views of the constitution of molecules, are probably of very rare occurrence; in fact, chemical action appears almost always to involve the occurrence of both these kinds of change, for, as already pointed out, we must assume that the molecules of hydrogen, oxygen and several other elements are diatomic, or that they consist of two atoms. Indeed, it appears probable that with few exceptions the elements