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COLUMBANI—COLUMBIA


and reproduced by Migne, p. 4, vol. lxxxvi. (Paris, 1844). See further, Wright’s Biographia Literaria. Columban’s Regula Coenobitalis cum Poenitentiali is to be found in the Codex Regularum (Paris, 1638). A complete bibliography is given in U. Chevallier, Répertoire des sources hist. (Bio. Bibliogr.), vol. i. 990 (Paris, 1905).


COLUMBANI, PLACIDO, Italian architectural designer, who worked chiefly in England in the latter part of the 18th century. He belonged to the school of the Adams and Pergolesi, and like them frequently designed the enrichments of furniture. He was a prolific producer of chimney-pieces, which are often mistaken for Adam work, of moulded friezes, and painted plaques for cabinets and the like. There can be no question that the English furniture designers of the end of the 18th century, and especially the Adams, Hepplewhite and Sheraton, owed much to his graceful, flowing and classical conceptions, although they are often inferior to those of Pergolesi. His books are still a valuable store-house of sketches for internal architectural decoration. His principal works are:—Vases and Tripods (1770); A New Book of Ornaments, containing a variety of elegant designs for Modern Panels, commonly executed in Stucco, Wood or Painting, and used in decorating Principal Rooms (1775); A variety of Capitals, Friezes and Corniches, and how to increase and decrease them, still retaining their proportions (1776). He also assisted John Crunden in the production of The Chimneypiece Makers’ Daily Assistant (1776).

COLUMBARIUM (Lat. columba, a dove), a pigeon-house. The term is applied in architecture to those sepulchral chambers in and near Rome, the walls of which were sunk with small niches (columbaria) to receive the cinerary urns. Vitruvius (iv. 2) employs the term to signify the holes made in a wall to receive the ends of the timbers of a floor or roof.

COLUMBIA, a city and the county-seat of Boone county, Missouri, U.S.A., situated in the central part of the state, about 145 m. (by rail) W.N.W. of St Louis. Pop. (1890) 4000; (1900) 5651 (1916 negroes); (1910) 9662. Columbia is served by the Wabash and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways. It is primarily an educational centre, is a market for grain and farm products, and has grain elevators, a packing house, a shoe factory and brick works. Columbia is the seat of the University of Missouri, a coeducational state institution, established in 1839 and opened in 1841; it received no direct financial support from the state until 1867, and its founding was due to the self-sacrifice of the people of the county. It is now liberally supported by the state; in 1908 its annual income was about $650,000. In 1908 the university had (at Columbia) 200 instructors and 2419 students, including 680 women; included in its library is the collection of the State Historical Society. The School of Mines of the university is at Rolla, Mo.; all other departments are at Columbia. A normal department was established in 1867 and opened in 1868; and women were admitted to it in 1869. The College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts became a department of the university in 1870. The law department was opened in 1872, the medical in 1873, and the engineering in 1877. The graduate department was established in 1896, and in 1908 a department of journalism was organized. On the university campus in the quadrangle is the monument of grey granite erected over the grave of Thomas Jefferson, designed after his own plans, and bearing the famous inscription written by him. It was given to the university by descendants of Jefferson when Congress appropriated money for the monument now standing over his grave. Near the city is the farm of the agricultural college and the experiment station. At Columbia, also, are the Parker Memorial hospital, the Teachers College high school, the University Military Academy, the Columbia Business College, Christian College (Disciples) for women, established in 1851, its charter being the first granted by Missouri for the collegiate education of Protestant women; the Bible College of the Disciples of Christ in Missouri; and Stephens College (under Baptist control) for women, established in 1856. The municipality owns the water-works and the electric lighting plant. Columbia was first settled about 1821.

COLUMBIA, a borough of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the W. bank of the Susquehanna river (here crossed by a long steel bridge), opposite Wrightsville and about 81 m. W. by N. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890) 10,599; (1900) 12,316, of whom 772 were foreign-born; (1910) 11,454. It is served by the Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington, the Philadelphia & Reading, and the Northern Central railways, and by interurban electric railways. The river here is about a mile wide, and a considerable portion of the borough is built on the slope of a hill which rises gently from the river-bank and overlooks beautiful scenery. The Pennsylvania railway has repair shops here, and among Columbia’s manufactures are silk goods, embroidery and laces, iron and steel pipe, engines, laundry machinery, brushes, stoves, iron toys, umbrellas, flour, lumber and wagons; the city is also a busy shipping and trading centre. Columbia was first settled, by Quakers, in 1726; it was laid out as a town in 1787; and in 1814 it was incorporated. In 1790 it was one of several places considered in Congress for a permanent site of the national capital.

COLUMBIA, the capital city of South Carolina, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Richland county, on the E. bank of the Congaree river, a short distance below the confluence of the Saluda and the Broad rivers, about 130 m. N.W. of Charleston. Pop. (1890) 15,353; (1900) 21,108, of whom 9858 were negroes; and (1910) 26,319. It is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Southern, the Seaboard Air Line, and the Columbia, Newberry & Laurens railways. Columbia is picturesquely situated on the level top of a bluff overlooking the Congaree, which falls about 36 ft. in passing by, but is navigable for the remainder of its course. The surrounding country is devoted chiefly to cotton culture. The state house, United States government building and city hall are fine structures. Some of the new business houses are ten or more storeys in height. The state penitentiary and the state insane asylum are located here, and Columbia is an important educational centre, being the seat of the university of South Carolina, the Columbia College for women (Methodist Episcopal South, 1854), the College for women (Presbyterian, 1890), and the Presbyterian Theological Seminary (1828); and the Allen University (African Methodist Episcopal; coeducational, 1880), and the Benedict College (Baptist) for negroes. The University of South Carolina, organized in 1801 and opened in 1805, was known as South Carolina College in 1805–1863, 1878–1887 and 1891–1906, and as the university of South Carolina in 1866–1877, 1888–1891 and after 1906; in 1907–1908 it had departments of arts, science, pedagogy and law, an enrolment of 285 students, and a faculty of 25 instructors. By means of a canal abundant water power is furnished by the Congaree, and the city has some of the largest cotton mills in the world; it has, besides, foundries and machine shops and manufactories of fertilizers and hosiery. The manufactures under the factory system were valued at $3,133,903 in 1900 and at $4,676,944 in 1905—a gain, greater than that of any other city in the state, of 49.2% in five years. In the neighbourhood are several valuable granite quarries. The municipality owns and operates its water-works.

While much of the site was still a forest the legislature, in 1786, chose it for the new capital. It was laid out in the same year, and in 1790 the legislature first met here. Until 1805, when it was incorporated as a village, Columbia was under the direct government of the legislature; in 1854 it was chartered as a city. On the morning of the 17th of February 1865 General W. T. Sherman, on his march through the Carolinas, entered Columbia, and on the ensuing night a fire broke out which was not extinguished until most of the city was destroyed. The responsibility for this fire was charged by the Confederates upon the Federals and by the Federals upon the Confederates.

COLUMBIA, a city and the county-seat of Maury county, Tennessee, U.S.A., situated on the Duck river, in the central part of the state, 46 m. S. of Nashville. Pop. (1890) 5370; (1900) 6052 (2716 negroes); (1910) 5754. Columbia is served by the Louisville & Nashville, and the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis railways. It is the seat of the Columbia Institute for girls (under Protestant Episcopal control), founded in 1836, and of the Columbia Military Academy. Columbia is in a fine farming