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the weight of carbon dioxide evolved. C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan collected the carbon dioxide obtained in this way over mercury. They also showed that carbon monoxide was given off towards the end of the reaction, and oxygen was not evolved unless the temperature exceeded 100°.

Methods depending upon oxidation in the presence of a contact substance have come into favour during recent years. In that of M. Dennstedt, which was first proposed in 1902, the substance is vaporized in a tube containing at one end platinum foil, platinized quartz, or platinized asbestos. The platinum is maintained at a bright red heat, either by a gas flame or by an electric furnace, and the vapour is passed over it by leading in a current of oxygen. If nitrogen be present, a boat containing dry lead peroxide and heated to 320° is inserted, the oxide decomposing any nitrogen peroxide which may be formed. The same absorbent quantitatively takes up any halogen and sulphur which may be present. The process is therefore adapted to the simultaneous estimation of carbon, hydrogen, the halogens and sulphur.

Nitrogen is estimated by (1) Dumas’ method, which consists in heating the substance with copper oxide and measuring the volume of nitrogen liberated; (2) by Will and Varrentrapp’s method, in which the substance is heated with soda-lime, and the ammonia evolved is absorbed in Sidenote: Nitrogen.hydrochloric acid, and thence precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate or estimated volumetrically; or (3) by Kjeldahl’s method, in which the substance is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate added, the liquid diluted and boiled with caustic soda, and the evolved ammonia absorbed in hydrochloric acid and estimated as in Will and Varrentrapp’s method.

Dumas’ Method.—In this method the operation is carried out in a hard glass tube sealed at one end and packed as shown in fig. 5. The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides. Ulrich Kreusler generates the carbon dioxide in a separate apparatus, and in this case the tube is drawn out to a capillary at the end (a). This artifice is specially valuable when the substance decomposes or volatilizes in a warm current of carbon dioxide. Various forms of the absorbing apparatus (e) have been discussed by M. Ilinski (Ber. 17, p. 1347), who has also suggested the use of manganese carbonate instead of magnesite, since the change of colour enables one to follow the decomposition. Substances which burn with difficulty may be mixed with mercuric oxide in addition to copper oxide.

EB1911 Chemistry - Fig. 5.jpg

Will and Varrentrapp’s Method.—This method, as originally proposed, is not in common use, but has been superseded by Kjeldahl’s method, since the nitrogen generally comes out too low. It is susceptible of wider application by mixing reducing agents with the soda-lime: thus Goldberg (Ber. 16, p. 2546) uses a mixture of soda-lime, stannous chloride and sulphur for nitro- and azo-compounds, and C. Arnold (Ber. 18, p. 806) a mixture containing sodium hyposulphite and sodium formate for nitrates.

Kjeldahl’s Method.—This method rapidly came into favour on account of its simplicity, both of operation and apparatus. Various substances other than potassium permanganate have been suggested for facilitating the operation; J. W. Gunning (Z. anal. Chem., 1889, p. 189) uses potassium sulphate; Lassar-Cohn uses mercuric oxide. The applicability of the process has been examined by F. W. Dafert (Z. anal. Chem., 1888, p. 224), who has divided nitrogenous bodies into two classes with respect to it. The first class includes those substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, nitroso-, azo-, diazo- and amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, derivatives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds. Other improvements have been suggested by Dyer (J.C.S. Trans. 67, p. 811). For an experimental comparison of the accuracy of the Dumas, Will-Varrentrapp and Kjeldahl processes see L. L’Hôte, C.R. 1889, p. 817. Debordeaux (C.R. 1904, p. 905) has obtained good results by distilling the substance with a mixture of potassium thiosulphate and sulphide.

The halogens may be estimated by ignition with quicklime, or by heating with nitric acid and silver nitrate in a sealed tube. In the first method the substance, mixed with quicklime free from chlorine, is heated in a tube closed at one end in a combustion furnace. Halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.The product is dissolved in water, and the calcium haloid estimated in the usual way. The same decomposition may be effected by igniting with iron, ferric oxide and sodium carbonate (E. Kopp, Ber. 10, p. 290); the operation is easier if the lime be mixed with sodium carbonate, or a mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate be used. With iodine compounds, iodic acid is likely to be formed, and hence the solution must be reduced with sulphurous acid before precipitation with silver nitrate. C. Zulkowsky (Ber. 18, R. 648) burns the substance in oxygen, conducts the gases over platinized sand, and collects the products in suitable receivers. The oxidation with nitric acid in sealed tubes at a temperature of 150° to 200° for aliphatic compounds, and 250° to 260° for aromatic compounds, is in common use, for both the sulphur and phosphorus can be estimated, the former being oxidized to sulphuric acid and the latter to phosphoric acid. This method was due to L. Carius (Ann. 136, p. 129). R. Klason (Ber. 19, p. 1910) determines sulphur and the halogens by oxidizing the substance in a current of oxygen and nitrous fumes, conducting the vapours over platinum foil, and absorbing the vapours in suitable receivers. Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger’s method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid. A comparison of the various methods for estimating sulphur has been given by O. Hammarsten (Zeit. physiolog. Chem. 9, p. 273), and by Höland (Chemiker Zeitung, 1893, p. 991). H. H. Pringsheim (Ber. 38, p. 1434) has devised a method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the halogens, phosphorus and sulphur can be determined by one operation.

VI. Physical Chemistry

We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter. A physicist, however, does more than merely quantitatively determine specific properties of matter; he endeavours to establish mathematical laws which co-ordinate his observations, and in many cases the equations expressing such laws contain functions or terms which pertain solely to the chemical composition of matter. One example will suffice here. The limiting law expressing the behaviour of gases under varying temperature and pressure assumes the form pv = RT; so stated, this law is independent of chemical composition and may be regarded as a true physical law, just as much as the law of universal gravitation is a true law of physics. But this relation is not rigorously true; in fact, it does not accurately express the behaviour of any gas. A more accurate expression (see Condensation of Gases and Molecule) is (p + a/v²)(vb) = RT, in which a and b are quantities which depend on the composition of the gas, and vary from one gas to another.

It may be surmised that the quantitative measures of most physical properties will be found to be connected with the chemical nature of substances. In the investigation of these relations the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry. This branch receives treatment below. Of considerable importance, also, are the properties of solids, liquids and gases in solution. This subject has occupied a dominant position in physico-chemical research since the investigations of van’t Hoff and Arrhenius. This subject is treated in the article Solution; for the properties of liquid mixtures reference should also be made to the article Distillation.

Another branch of physical chemistry has for its purpose the quantitative study of chemical action, a subject which has brought out in clear detail the analogies of chemical and physical equilibrium (see Chemical Action). Another branch, related to energetics (q.v.), is concerned with the transformation of chemical energy into other forms of energy—heat, light, electricity. Combustion is a familiar example of the transformation of chemical energy into heat and light; the quantitative measures of heat evolution or absorption (heat of combustion or combination), and the deductions therefrom, are treated in the article Thermochemistry. Photography (q.v.) is based on chemical action induced by luminous rays; apart from this practical