that the rate at which electricity escapes is less when the pressure of the gas is low than when it is high. He found that the rate was the same whether the charged body was surrounded by air, carbonic acid or hydrogen. Subsequent investigations have shown that the rate in hydrogen is in general much less than in air. Thus in 1872 E. G. Warburg (Pogg. Ann., 1872, 145, p. 578) found that the leak through hydrogen was only about one-half of that through air: he confirmed Matteucci’s observations on the effect of pressure on the rate of leak, and also found that it was the same whether the gas was dry or damp. He was inclined to attribute the leak to dust in the air, a view which was strengthened by an experiment of J. W. Hittorf’s (Wied. Ann., 1879, 7, p. 595), in which a small carefully insulated electroscope, placed in a small vessel filled with carefully filtered gas, retained its charge for several days; we know now that this was due to the smallness of the vessel and not to the absence of dust, as it has been proved that the rate of leak in small vessels is less than in large ones.
Great light was thrown on this subject by some experiments on the rates of leak from charged bodies in closed vessels made almost simultaneously by H. Geitel (Phys. Zeit., 1900, 2, p. 116) and C. T. R. Wilson (Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 1900, 11, p. 32). These observers established that (1) the rate of escape of electricity in a closed vessel is much smaller than in the open, and the larger the vessel the greater is the rate of leak; and (2) the rate of leak does not increase in proportion to the differences of potential between the charged body and the walls of the vessel: the rate soon reaches a limit beyond which it does not increase, however much the potential difference may be increased, provided, of course, that this is not great enough to cause sparks to pass from the charged body. On the assumption that the maximum leak is proportional to the volume, Wilson’s experiments, which were made in vessels less than 1 litre in volume, showed that in dust-free air at atmospheric pressure the maximum quantity of electricity which can escape in one second from a charged body in a closed volume of V cubic centimetres is about 10−8V electrostatic units. E. Rutherford and S. T. Allan (Phys. Zeit., 1902, 3, p. 225), working in Montreal, obtained results in close agreement with this. Working between pressures of from 43 to 743 millimetres of mercury, Wilson showed that the maximum rate of leak is very approximately proportional to the pressure; it is thus exceedingly small when the pressure is low—a result illustrated in a striking way by an experiment of Sir W. Crookes (Proc. Roy. Soc., 1879, 28, p. 347) in which a pair of gold leaves retained an electric charge for several months in a very high vacuum. Subsequent experiments have shown that it is only in very small vessels that the rate of leak is proportional to the volume and to the pressure; in large vessels the rate of leak per unit volume is considerably smaller than in small ones. In small vessels the maximum rate of leak in different gases, is, with the exception of hydrogen, approximately proportional to the density of the gas. Wilson’s results on this point are shown in the following table (Proc. Roy. Soc., 1901, 60, p. 277):—
|Gas.||Relative Rate of Leak.||Rate of Leak.|
The rate of leak of electricity through gas contained in a closed vessel depends to some extent on the material of which the walls of the vessel are made; thus it is greater, other circumstances being the same, when the vessel is made of lead than when it is made of aluminium. It also varies, as Campbell and Wood (Phil. Mag. , 13, p. 265) have shown, with the time of the day, having a well-marked minimum at about 3 o’clock in the morning: it also varies from month to month. Rutherford (Phys. Rev., 1903, 16, p. 183), Cooke (Phil. Mag., 1903 , 6, p. 403) and M’Clennan and Burton (Phys. Rev., 1903, 16, p. 184) have shown that the leak in a closed vessel can be reduced by about 30% by surrounding the vessel with sheets of thick lead, but that the reduction is not increased beyond this amount, however thick the lead sheets may be. This result indicates that part of the leak is due to a very penetrating kind of radiation, which can get through the thin walls of the vessel but is stopped by the thick lead. A large part of the leak we are describing is due to the presence of radioactive substances such as radium and thorium in the earth’s crust and in the walls of the vessel, and to the gaseous radioactive emanations which diffuse from them into the atmosphere. This explains the very interesting effect discovered by J. Elster and H. Geitel (Phys. Zeit., 1901, 2, p. 560), that the rate of leak in caves and cellars when the air is stagnant and only renewed slowly is much greater than in the open air. In some cases the difference is very marked; thus they found that in the cave called the Baumannshöhle in the Harz mountains the electricity escaped at seven times the rate it did in the air outside. In caves and cellars the radioactive emanations from the walls can accumulate and are not blown away as in the open air.
The electrical conductivity of gases in the normal state is, as we have seen, exceedingly small, so small that the investigation of its properties is a matter of considerable difficulty; there are, however, many ways by which the electrical conductivity of a gas can be increased so greatly that the investigation becomes comparatively easy. Among such methods are raising the temperature of the gas above a certain point. Gases drawn from the neighbourhood of flames, electric arcs and sparks, or glowing pieces of metal or carbon are conductors, as are also gases through which Röntgen or cathode rays or rays of positive electricity are passing; the rays from the radioactive metals, radium, thorium, polonium and actinium, produce the same effect, as does also ultra-violet light of exceedingly short wave-length. The gas, after being made a conductor of electricity by any of these means, is found to possess certain properties; thus it retains its conductivity for some little time after the agent which made it a conductor has ceased to act, though the conductivity diminishes very rapidly and finally gets too small to be appreciable.
This and several other properties of conducting gas may readily be proved by the aid of the apparatus represented in fig. 5. V is a testing vessel in which an electroscope is placed. Two tubes A and C are fitted into the vessel, A being connected with a water pump, while the far end of C is in the region where the gas is exposed to the agent which makes it a conductor of electricity. Let us suppose that the gas is made conducting by Röntgen rays produced by a vacuum tube which is placed in a box, covered except for a window at B with lead so as to protect the electroscope from the direct action of the rays. If a slow current of air is drawn by the water pump through the testing vessel, the charge on the electroscope will gradually leak away. The leak, however, ceases when the current of air is stopped. This result shows that the gas retains its conductivity during the time taken by it to pass from one end to the other of the tube C.
The gas loses its conductivity when filtered through a plug of glass-wool, or when it is made to bubble through water. This can readily be proved by inserting in the tube C a plug of glass-wool or a water trap; then if by working the pump a little harder the same current of air is produced as before, it will be found that the electroscope will now retain its charge, showing that the conductivity can, as it were, be filtered out of the gas.