during the 19th century, especially after 1834 when Saxony joined the German Zollverein.
See Zöllner, Geschichte der Fabrik- und Handelsstadt Chemnitz (1891); and Straumer, Die Fabrik- und Handelsstadt Chemnitz (1892).
CHEMOTAXIS (from the stem of “chemistry” and Gr. τάξις, arrangement), a biological term for the attraction exercised on living or growing organisms or their members by chemical substances; e.g. the attraction of the male cells of ferns or mosses by an organic acid or sugar-solution.
CHENAB (the Greek Acesines), one of the “Five rivers” of the Punjab, India. It rises in the snowy Himalayan ranges of Kashmir, enters British territory in the Sialkot district, and flows through the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and the Jech Doabs. Finally it joins the Jhelum at Trimmu.
The Chenab Colony, resulting from the great success of the Chenab Canal in irrigating the desert of the Bar, was formed out of the three adjacent districts of Gujranwala, Jhang, and Montgomery in 1892, and contained in 1901 a population of 791,861. It lies in the Rechna Doab between the Chenab and Ravi rivers in the north-east of the Jhang district, and is designed to include an irrigated area of 2½ million acres. The Chenab Canal (opened 1887) is the largest and most profitable perennial canal in India. The principal town is Lyallpur, called after Sir J. Broadwood Lyall, lieutenant-governor of the Punjab 1887–1892, which gives its name to a district created in 1904.
CHENÊDOLLÉ, CHARLES JULIEN LIOULT DE (1769–1833), French poet, was born at Vire (Calvados) on the 4th of November 1769. He early showed a vocation for poetry, but the outbreak of the Revolution temporarily diverted his energy. Emigrating in 1791, he fought two campaigns in the army of Conde, and eventually found his way to Hamburg, where he met Antoine de Rivarol, of whose brilliant conversation he has left an account. He also visited Mme de Staël in her retreat at Coppet. On his return to Paris in 1799 he met Chateaubriand and his sister Lucile (Mme de Caud), to whom he became deeply attached. After her death in 1804, Chênedollé returned to Normandy, where he married and became eventually inspector of the academy of Caen (1812–1832). With the exception of occasional visits to Paris, he spent the rest of his life in his native province. He died at the château de Coisel on the 2nd of December 1833. He published his Genie de l’Homme in 1807, and in 1820 his Études poétiques, which had the misfortune to appear shortly after the Méditations of Lamartine, so that the author did not receive the credit of their real originality. Chênedollé had many sympathies with the romanticists, and was a contributor to their organ, the Muse française. His other works include the Esprit de Rivarol (1808) in conjunction with F. J. M. Fayolle.
The works of Chênedollé were edited in 1864 by Sainte-Beuve, who drew portraits of him in his Chateaubriand et son groupe and in an article contributed to the Revue des deux mondes (June 1849). See also E. Helland, Étude biographique et littéraire sur Chênedollé (1857); Cazin, Notice sur Chênedollé (1869).
CHENERY, THOMAS (1826–1884), English scholar and editor of The Times, was born in 1826 at Barbados. He was educated at Eton and Caius College, Cambridge. Having been called to the bar, he went out to Constantinople as The Times correspondent just before the Crimean War, and it was under the influence there of Algernon Smythe (afterwards Lord Strangford) that he first turned to those philological studies in which he became eminent. After the war he returned to London and wrote regularly for The Times for many years, eventually succeeding Delane as editor in 1877. He was then an experienced publicist, particularly well versed in Oriental affairs, an indefatigable worker, with a rapid and comprehensive judgment, though he lacked Delane’s intuition for public opinion. It was as an Orientalist, however, that he had meantime earned the highest reputation, his knowledge of Arabic and Hebrew being almost unrivalled and his gift for languages exceptional. In 1868 he was appointed Lord Almoner’s professor of Arabic at Oxford, and retained his position until he became editor of The Times. He was one of the company of revisers of the Old Testament. He was secretary for some time to the Royal Asiatic Society, and published learned editions of the Arabic classic The Assemblies of Al-Harirī and of the Machberoth Ithiel. He died in London on the 11th of February 1884.
CHENG, Tscheng or Tschiang (Ger. Scheng), an ancient Chinese wind instrument, a primitive organ, containing the principle of the free reed which found application in the accordion, concertina and harmonium. The cheng resembles a tea-pot filled with bamboo pipes of graduated lengths. It consists of a gourd or turned wooden receptacle acting as wind reservoir, in the side of which is inserted an insufflation tube curved like a swan’s neck or the spout of a tea-pot. The cup-shaped reservoir is closed by means of a plate of horn pierced with seventeen round holes arranged round the edge in an unfinished circle, into which fit the bamboo pipes. The pipes are cylindrical as far as they are visible above the plate, but the lower end inserted in the wind reservoir is cut to the shape of a beak, somewhat like the mouthpiece of the clarinet, to receive the reed. The construction of the free reed is very simple: it consists of a thin plate of metal—gold according to the Jesuit missionary Joseph Amiot, but brass in the specimens brought to Europe—of the thickness of ordinary paper. In this plate is cut a rectangular flap or tongue which remains fixed at one end, while at the other the tongue is filed so that, instead of closing the aperture, it passes freely through, vibrating as the air is forced through the pipe (see Free-Reed Vibrator). The metal plate is fastened with wax longitudinally across the diameter of the beak end of the pipe, a little layer of wax being applied also to the free end of the vibrating tongue for the purpose of tuning by adding weight and impetus. About half an inch above the horn plate a small round hole or stop is bored through the pipe, which speaks only when this hole is covered by the finger. A longitudinal aperture about an inch long cut in the upper end of the bamboo pipe serves to determine the length of the vibrating column of air proper to respond to the vibrations of the free reed. The length of the bamboo above this opening is purely ornamental, as are also four or five of the seventeen pipes which have no reeds and do not speak, being merely inserted for the purposes of symmetry in design. The notes of the cheng, like those of the concertina, speak either by inspiration or expiration of air, the former being the more usual method. Mahillon states that performers on the cheng in China are rare, as the method of playing by inspiration induces inflammation of the throat. Amiot, who gives a description of the instrument with illustrations showing the construction, states that in the great Chinese encyclopaedia Eulh-ya, articles Yu and Ho, the Yu of ancient China was the large cheng with nineteen free reeds (twenty-four pipes), and the Ho the small cheng with thirteen reeds or seventeen pipes described in this article. The compass of the latter is given by him as the middle octave with chromatic intervals, the thirteenth note giving the octave of the first. Mahillon gives the compass of a modern cheng as follows:
E. F. F. Chladni, who examined a cheng sent from China to Herr Müller, organist of the church of St Nicholas, Leipzig, at the beginning of the 19th century, gives an excellent description of the instrument, reproducing in illustration a plate from Giulio Ferrario’s work on costume Müller’s cheng had the same compass as Mahillon’s. Chladni’s article was motived by the publication of an account of the exhibition of G. J. Grenié’s Orgue expressif, invented about 1810, in the Conservatoire of
- Mémoire sur la musique des Chinois (Paris, 1779), pp. 78 and 82, pl. vi., or Mémoire sur les Chinois, tome vi. pl. vi.
- Catalogue descriptif, vol. ii. (Ghent, 1896), p. 91; also vol. i. (1880), pp. 29, 44, 154.
- “Weitere Nachrichten von dem . . . chinesischen Blasinstrumente Tscheng oder Tschiang,” in Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (Leipzig, 1821), Bd. xxiii. No. 22, pp. 369, 374 et seq., and illustration appendix ii.
- Il Costume anticho e moderno (Milan, 1816), pl. 66, vol. i.