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spaces diminishes. We may regard the part of the discharge between the cathode and the negative glow as a discharge taking place under minimum potential difference through a distance equal to the critical spark length. An inspection of fig. 16 will show that we cannot regard the electric field as constant even for this small distance; it thus becomes a matter of interest to know what would be the effect on the minimum potential difference required to produce a spark if there were sufficient ions present to produce variations in the electric field analogous to those represented in fig. 16. If the electric force at a distance x from the cathode were proportional to εpx we should have a state of things much resembling the distribution of electric force near the cathode. If we apply to this distribution the methods used above for the case when the force was uniform, we shall find that the minimum potential is less and the critical spark length greater than when the electric force is uniform.

Potential Difference required to produce a Spark of given Length.—We may regard the region between the cathode and the negative glow as a place for the production of corpuscles, these corpuscles finding their way from this region through the negative glow. The parts of this glow towards the anode we may regard as a cathode, from which, as from a hot lime cathode, corpuscles are emitted. Let us now consider what will happen to these corpuscles shot out from the negative glow with a velocity depending on the cathode fall of potential and independent of the pressure. These corpuscles will collide with the molecules of the gas, and unless there is an external electric field to maintain their velocity they will soon come to rest and accumulate in front of the negative glow. The electric force exerted by this cloud of corpuscles will diminish the strength of the electric field in the region between the cathode and the negative glow, and thus tend to stop the discharge. To keep up the discharge we must have a sufficiently strong electric field between the negative glow and the anode to remove the corpuscles from this region as fast as they are sent into it from the cathode. If, however, there is no production of ions in the region between the negative glow and the anode, all the ions in this region will have come from near the cathode and will be negatively charged; this negative electrification will diminish the electric force on the cathode side of it and thus tend to stop the discharge. This back electric field could, however, be prevented by a little ionization in the region between the anode and glow, for this would afford a supply of positive ions, and thus afford an opportunity for the gas in this region to have in it as many positive as negative ions; in this case it would not give rise to any back electromotive force. The ionization which produces these positive ions may, if the field is intense, be due to the collisions of corpuscles, or it may be due to radiation analogous to ultra-violet, or soft Röntgen rays, which have been shown by experiment to accompany the discharge. Thus in the most simple conditions for discharge we should have sufficient ionization to keep up the supply of positive ions, and an electric field strong enough to keep the velocity of the negative corpuscle equal to the value it has when it emerges from the negative glow. Thus the force must be such as to give a constant velocity to the corpuscle, and since the force required to move an ion with a given velocity is proportional to the pressure, this force will be proportional to the pressure of the gas. Let us call this force ap; then if l is the distance of the anode from the negative glow the potential difference between these points will be alp. The potential difference between the negative glow and the cathode is constant and equals c; hence if V is the potential difference between the anode and cathode, then V = c + alp, a relation which expresses the connexion between the potential difference and spark length for spark lengths greater than the critical distance. It is to be remembered that the result we have obtained applies only to such a case as that indicated above, where the electric force is constant along the positive column. Experiments with the discharge through gases at low pressure show the discharge may take other forms. Thus the positive column may be striated when the force along it is no longer uniform, or the positive column may be absent; the discharge may be changed from one of these forms to another by altering the current. The relation between the potential and the distance between the electrodes varies greatly, as we might expect, with the current passing through the gas.

The connexion between the potential difference and the spark length has been made the subject of a large number of experiments. The first measurements were made by Lord Kelvin in 1860 (Collected Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, p. 247); subsequent experiments have been made by Baille (Ann. de chimie et de physique, 5, 25, p. 486), Liebig (Phil. Mag. [5], 24, p. 106), Paschen (Wied. Ann. 37, p. 79), Peace (Proc. Roy. Soc., 1892, 52, p. 99), Orgler (Ann. der Phys. 1, p. 159), Strutt (Phil. Trans. 193, p. 377), Bouty (Comptes rendus, 131, pp. 469, 503), Earhart (Phil. Mag. [6], 1, p. 147), Carr (Phil. Trans., 1903), Russell (Phil. Mag. [5], 64, p. 237), Hobbs (Phil. Mag. [6], 10, p. 617), Kinsley (Phil. Mag. [6], 9, 692), Ritter (Ann. der Phys. 14, p. 118). The results of their experiments show that for sparks considerably longer than the critical spark length, the relation between the potential difference V and the spark length l may be expressed when the electrodes are large with great accuracy by the linear relation V = c + blp, where p is the pressure and c and b are constants depending on the nature of the gas. When the sparks are long the term blp is the most important and the sparking potential is proportional to the spark length. Though there are considerable discrepancies between the results obtained by different observers, these indicate that the production of a long spark between large electrodes in air at atmospheric pressure requires a potential difference of 30,000 volts for each centimetre of spark length. In hydrogen only about half this potential difference is required, in carbonic acid gas the potential difference is about the same as in air, while Ritter’s experiments show that in helium only about one-tenth of this potential difference is required.

In the case when the electric field is not uniform, as for example when the discharge takes place between spherical electrodes, Russell’s experiments show that the discharge takes place as soon as the maximum electric force in the field between the electrodes reaches a definite value, which he found was for air at atmospheric pressure about 38,000 volts per centimetre.

Very Short Sparks.—Some very interesting experiments on the potential difference required to produce exceedingly short sparks have been made by Earhart, Hobbs and Kinsley; the length of these sparks was comparable with the wave length of sodium light. With sparks of these lengths it was found that it was possible to get a discharge with less than 330 volts, the minimum potential difference in air. The results of these observers show that there is no diminution in the minimum potential difference required to produce discharge until the spark length gets so small that the average electric force between the electrodes amounts to about one million volts per centimetre. When the force rises to this value a discharge takes place even though the potential difference is much less than 330 volts; in some of Earhart’s experiments it was only about 2 volts. This kind of discharge is determined not by the condition that the potential difference should have a given value, but that the electric force should have a given value. Another point in which this discharge differs from the ordinary one is that it is influenced entirely by the nature of the electrodes and not by the nature or pressure of the gas between them, whereas the ordinary discharge is in many cases not affected appreciably by changes in the metal of the electrodes, but is always affected by changes in the pressure and character of the gas between them. Kinsley found that when one of these small sparks passed between the electrodes a kind of metallic bridge was formed between them, so that they were in metallic connexion, and that the distance between them had to be considerably increased before the bridge was broken. Almy (Phil. Mag., Sept. 1908), who used very small electrodes, was unable to get a discharge with less than the minimum spark potential even when the spark length was reduced to one-third of the wave length of sodium light. He suggests that the discharges

obtained with larger electrodes for smaller voltages are