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saying that “the Austrian government was the most beneficent in the world.” Confalonieri went on to London, in the hope of winning the favour of the British government, but failed in his object. He then joined the Freemasons and some of the various other secret societies with which all Europe was swarming, being initiated by Filippo Buonarroti (1761–1837), an old Tuscan Jacobin living in Paris. On returning to Milan, where he found the Austrians in possession, he at first devoted himself to promoting the material progress of his country, but he was ever watching for an opportunity to liberate it from the foreigner.

Early in 1821, when the atmosphere was thick with rumours of revolt, he visited various parts of Italy to sound the liberal leaders, and also corresponded with the Piedmontese officers who, believing that they had the approval of Prince Charles Albert of Carignano, the heir to the throne, were planning a military revolt. There was talk of a rising at Milan combined with a Piedmontese invasion to expel the Austrians, but the plans were very vague and unpractical, for the military conspirators could count only on a few hundred men, and Confalonieri warned them that Lombardy was not ready. On the outbreak of the Piedmontese revolt (March-April 1821) the Austrian authorities made some arrests, and, through the treachery of one conspirator and the foolishness of others, discovered the plot, if it could so be called, and arrested Silvio Pellico and Maroncelli and afterwards Confalonieri. A long trial now began, conducted with all the rigour and secrecy of the Austrian procedure, and Confalonieri, outwitted by the astute examining magistrate, A. Salvotti (d. 1866), contradicted himself, made fatal admissions, even compromised others, and together with several companions was condemned to death for high treason, but through the intercession of his wife and father, who went to Vienna to plead his cause in person, the emperor Francis commuted the penalty to perpetual imprisonment in the fortress of Spielberg (January 1824). Confalonieri was taken to Vienna and had a long interview with Prince Metternich, who tried to extract further confessions incriminating other persons, especially Charles Albert, but although Confalonieri seemed at one time inclined to prepare a report on the revolutionary movement for the emperor, he did not do so, and once he was in prison he refused to say or write another word, and was treated with exceptional severity in consequence. His wife died in 1830, and in 1836, on the death of the emperor Francis, he was pardoned and exiled to America. He came back to Europe after a year’s absence, and in 1840 obtained permission to return to Milan to see his dying father. He himself, broken in health and spirits, died on the 10th of December 1846, too soon to see the accomplishment of Italian freedom. He had undoubtedly played a considerable role in the conspiracy of 1821, being the most influential and richest of the Milanese Liberals; when first arrested his conduct may have been open to criticism, but he more than expiated any temporary weakness due to ill-health and to the barbarous methods of examination by his heroic attitude during his long imprisonment, and his persistent refusal to accept offers of pardon accompanied by dishonouring conditions.

His Memoire e Lettere have been edited by Gabrio Casati (2 vols., Milan, 1890). A. D’Ancona’s Federico Confalonieri (Milan, 1898) is based on the memoirs and on a large number of secret documents from the archives of Vienna and Milan. A. Luzio’s Antonio Salvotti e i processi del Ventuno (Rome, 1901) contains many fresh documents which to some extent exonerate Salvotti from the charge of cruelty; among other papers Metternich’s account of his interview with Confalonieri is given in full. See also A. Luzio, Nuovi documenti sul processo Confalonieri (Rome, 1908).  (L. V.*) 

CONFARREATIO, the ancient patrician form of marriage among the Romans, especially necessary at the nuptials of those whose children were intended to be vestal virgins or flamens of Jupiter. The name originated in the bride and bridegroom sharing a cake of spelt (far or panis farreus), in the presence of the pontifex maximus, flamen dialis, and ten witnesses. This form of marriage could only be dissolved by another equally solemn ceremony, which was called diffarreatio. In later republican times, confarreatio became obsolete except in the case of the most sacred priesthoods-the flamines and the rex sacrorum. Confarreatio was the most solemn of the three forms of marriage (q.v.), but in later times the ceremony fell into disuse, and Cicero mentions but two, coemptio and usus. (See Roman Law.)

CONFECTIONERY (from Lat. confectio, conficere, compound), a term of rather vague application, embracing all food preparations of the nature of sweetmeats, pastry, &c., which have sugar (q.v.) for their basis or principal ingredient. In this way the industry may be said to include the preservation of fruits by means of sugar, the manufacture of jams and jellies, the art of preparing fruit-syrups and pastes, ices, and sweetened beverages, in addition to the various manufactures in which sugar is the more prominent and principal ingredient. In former days the making of sweetmeats was part of a druggist’s business, but in the earlier half of the 19th century it developed into a separate industry in England, and the International Exhibition of 1851 resulted in its spreading to other countries. At the present day France and Germany are prominent in all sorts of confectionery and bon-bons; and the “candy” industry in America has developed enormously.

The simplest form in which sugar is prepared as a sweet for eating is that of lozenges, which consist of finely ground sugar mixed with dissolved gum to form a stiff dough. This is rolled into sheets of the desired thickness from which the lozenges are stamped out by appropriate cutters and then allowed to dry and harden in a heated apartment. They are coloured and flavoured with a great variety of ingredients, which are added in suitable proportions with the dissolved gum. Many kinds of medicated lozenges are also in extensive use, the medicinal ingredients being similarly incorporated with the gum. Hard sweetmeats, comfits or dragées, constitute another important variety of confectionery. To make these a core or centre of some kind is taken, consisting of a small lozenge, or of some seed or fruit, such as an almond, coriander, caraway, pistachio, &c., and successive layers of sugar are deposited around it till the desired size is attained. The cores are placed in large copper pans or vessels which are heated by a steam coil or jacket, or by hot air, and which are geared to rotate at an inclined angle so that their contents are kept constantly in motion, tumbling over each other. From time to time sugar syrup is added as they appear to get dry, and after receiving a certain coating they are removed to dry and harden. After a sufficient number of alternate coatings in the pan and dryings, the comfits are finished with a coating of thin syrup, which may be coloured if desired. Another extensive class of confectionery is made with sugar boiled at different temperatures, the various degrees of heating being known as thread, blow or feather, ball, crack, caramel, &c. In some cases a little cream of tartar, or glucose to the extent of 30% or even more, is used with the sugar. By treatment of this kind the sugar is obtained in a wide range of consistencies, from soft and creamy, as in fondants, to clear and hard, as in barley sugar. By vigorous and continued drawing out or “pulling” of boiled sugar while it is in a plastic condition, the molecular structure of the material is changed, and from being glassy and transparent it becomes opaque, porous and granular in appearance. In this way the preparation known as rock is manufactured. For liqueurs, a flavoured syrup is dropped into moulds impressed in dry starch, when a crust of sugar forms on the outside, the interior remaining liquid. The thickness of this crust is then increased by immersing it in syrup from which more sugar-crystals are deposited upon it, and the sweets may be finished in the comfit-pan already mentioned. Sugar-candy is prepared from solutions of either brown or refined sugar, to the latter of which cochineal or other colouring ingredient is frequently added. The solutions, when boiled to a proper degree, are poured into moulds across which pieces of string are stretched at sufficient intervals. Kept in a chamber heated from 90° to 100° F., the sugar gradually crystallizes on the strings and the sides of the mould, and when sufficient has been deposited the remaining liquor is drained off, and the crystals are removed and dried by heat. Machinery, often of