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WATER MOTORS]
95
HYDRAULICS


relatively to P, compressing the springs, till their resistance balances the pressure due to the resistance to the rotation of P. The engine then commences to work, the crank pin being in the position in which the turning effort just overcomes the resistance. If the resistance diminishes, the springs force out the chains and shorten the stroke of the plungers, and vice versa. The following experiments, on an engine of this kind working a hoist, show how the automatic arrangement adjusted the water used to the work done. The lift was 22 lt. and the water pressure in the cylinders 80 lb per sq. in. W. . § , § g'§ f"“ed' EE, " 427 633 745 S51 969 1081 1193 W;§ '&;Eed'i“ 7% 10 14 16 17 20 21 22 § 179. /lCClH7l1¢Z<1Z0l' M achinery.-It has already been pointed out that it is in some cases convenient to use a steam engine to create an artificial head of water, which is afterwards employed in driving water-pressure machinery. Where power is required intermittently, for short periods, at a number of different points, as, for instance, in moving the cranes, lock gates, &c., of a dockyard, a separate steam engine and boiler at each point is very inconvenient; nor can engines worked from a common boiler be used, because of the great loss of heat and the difficulties which arise out of condensation in the pipes. If a tank, into which water is continuously pumped, can be placed at a great elevation, the water can then be used in hydraulic machinery in a very convenient way. Each hydraulic machine is put in communication with the tank by a pipe, and on opening a valve it commences work, using a quantity of water directly proportional to the work done. No attendance is required when the machine is not working. A site for such an elevated tank is, however, seldom available, and in place of it a beautiful arrangement termed an accumulator, invented by Lord Armstrong, is used. This consists of a tall vertical cylinder; into this works a solid ram through cup leathers or hemp packing, and the ram is loaded by fixed weights, so that the pressure in the cylinder is 700 lb or Soo lb er sq.in ing a cylindrical wrought-iron tank W, in which weights are placed to load the accumulator. At R is one of the pressure engines or j iggers, worked from the accumulator, discharging the water after use into the tank T. In this case the pressure engine is shown working a set of blocks, the fixed block being on the ram cylinder, the running block on the ram. The chain running over these blocks works a lift cage C, the speed of which is as many times greater than that of the ram as there are plies of chain on the block tackle. B is the balance 5 weight of the cage. In the use of accumulators on shipboard for working gun gear or steering gear, the accumulator ram is loaded by f springs, or by steam pressure acting on a 2 piston much larger than the ram. 2 R. H. Tweddell has used accumulators with a pressure of 2000 lb per A 9 stqiniéiéyto work hydraulic riveting ma- lf? 3C;.h.iui§ l§ ?, “ti.§ i1§ '§ e'§ y.§§ .'§ 'e§ i'$.“i§ ?;;f2§ t;'i.ir;;';:.°;.§ ;;: § .'fd.;'€'”@f¢ ZpdYS foot-pounds., 2 Thus, if the ram is 9 in., the stroke 20 ft., and the pressure 800 lb per sq. in., the work stored in the accumulator when the Q ram is at the top of the stroke is 1,01 7,600 1% foot-pounds, that is, enough to drive a machine requiring one horse power for '“ Z f& /® f

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7 about half an hour. As, however, the > li pumping engine replaces water as soon / ll as it is drawn off, the working capacity ii, A of the accumulator is very much greater amd Q; Md than this. Tweddell found that an ac- sit;, iicumulaticg charged at E50 lb dqisqharged W at 1225 pers .in. - ence the riction was equivalentiio I2% lb per sq. in. and the efficiency 98 %. ' ” '”" ' " Vl/'hen a very great pressure is required FIG 177. p . In some cases the ram is fixed and the cylinder moves on it. e>t"e>%ff 1 | I | i.

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L, - L-, ll / i, |. ... V, ,, ,, ,1FfHf7"'5f!77'ffF?F1f17ffZ' 57 l7'#ff» " / ' / / ww/mn/» f wi / I 1////7/I/I1////////////11/1' I/ " "//" FIG. 176. . The pumping engin es which supply the energy that is stored in the accumulator should be a pair coupled at right angles, so as to start in any position. The engines pump into the accumulator cylinder till the ram is at the top of its stroke, when by a catch arrangement acting on the engine throttle valve the engines are stopped. If the accumulator ram descends, in consequence of water being taken to work machinery, the engines immediately recom- mence working. Pipes lead from the accumulator to each of the machines requiring to be driven, and do not require to be of large size, as the pressure is so great Fig. 176 shows a diagrammatic way the scheme of a system of accumulator machinery. A is the accumulator, with its ram carry a differential accumulator (fig. 177) is convenient. The ram is fixed and passes through both ends of the cylinder, but is of different diameters at the two ends, A and B. Hence if di, d2 are the diameters of the ram ininches and p the required pressure in lb per sq. in., the load required is }p1r(d”, -dk). An accumulator of this kind used with riveting machines has di = 5% in., dz =4gll'1. The pressure is 2000 lb per sq. in. and the load 5~4 tons. Sometimes an accumulator is loaded by water or steam pressure instead of by a dead weight. Fig. 178 shows the arrangement. A piston A is connected to a plunger B of much smaller area. Vater pressure, say from town mains, is admitted below A, and the high '“" pressure water is pumped into and discharged from the cylinder C in which B works. If r is the ratio of the areas of A and B, then, neglecting friction, the pressure in the upper cylinder is 1' times that under the piston A. Vllith a variable rate of supply and demand from the upper cylinder, the piston A rises and fa1ls, maintaining always a constant pressure in the upper cylinder. /M/////m/n 0 //////////y / /4//0 ///// / 0////4 1 0u£[e[ i I qi %//, 1A 0/0//5 , ls gx %%/ My/pa////M 4

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4/1/////////an///////////////m//////0 § ?§ Water W heels. § 180. Overshot and High Breast Wheels. -When a water fall ranges between IO and 70 ft. and the water supply is from 3 to 25 cub. ft. per second, it is possible to construct a bucket wheel on which the water acts chiefly by its weight. If the variation of the head-water level does not exceed 2 ft., an overshot wheel may be used (fig. 179). The water is then projected over the summit of the wheel, and falls in a parabolic path into the buckets. With greater variation of head-water level, a pitch-back or high breast Wheel is better. The water falls over the top of a sliding sluice into the wheel, on the same side as the head race channel. By adjusting the height of the sluice, the requisite supply is given to the wheel in all positions of the head-water level. The wheel consists of a cast-iron or wrought-iron axle C supporting the weight of the wheel. To this are attached two

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Fig. 178.