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plates make a sufficiently water-tight joint with the casing, to prevent leakage from the guide-blade chamber into the suction pipes. The pressure near the joint rings is not very great, probably not one-fourth the total head. The wheel vanes receive the water without shock, and deliver it into central spaces, from which it flows on either side to the suction pipes. The mode of regulating the power of the turbine is very simple. The guide blades are pivoted to the case at their inner ends, and they are connected by a linkwork, so that they all open and close simultaneously and equally. In this way the area of opening ° through the guide blades is altered without materially altering the angle or the other conditions of enough to adjust the guide-blades very exactly. These turbines are made by Messrs Gilkes & Co. of Kendal Fig. 190 shows another arrangement of a similar turbine, with some adjuncts not shown in the other drawings. In this ease the turbine rotates horizontally, and the turbine case is placed entirely below the tail water. The water is supplied to the turbine by a vertical pipe, over which is a wooden pen trough, containing a strainer, which prevents sticks and other solid bodies getting into the turbine. The turbine rests on three foundation stones, and, the pivot for the vertical shaft being under water, there is a screw and lever arrangement for adjusting it as it wears. The vertical shaft gives motion to the machinery driven by a pair of bevel wheels. On the righ-t are the worm and wheel for working the guide-blade gear. § 188. Hydraulic Power at Niagara.—The largest development of hydraulic power is that at Niagara. The Niagara Falls Power Company have constructed two. power houses on the United States side, the first with IO turbines of 5000 h.p. each, and the second with 10 turbines of 5500 h.p. The effective fall is 136 to 140 ft. In the first power house the turbines are twin outward How reaction turbines with vertical shafts running at 250 revs. per minuteiand ¥ driving the dynamos direct. In the second power house the turbines 5 ' , ,, ,.., , 2 él I m il 17

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FIG. 191. are inward flow turbines with draft tubes or suction pipes. Fig. 191 shows ~a section of one of these turbines. There is a balancing piston keyed on the shaft, to the under side of which the pressure due to the fall is admitted, so that the weight of turbine, vertical shaft and part of the dynamo is water borne. About 70,000 h.p. is daily distributed electrically from these two power houses. The Canadian Niagara Power Company are erecting a power house to contain eleven units of 10,250 h.p. each, the turbines being twin inward flow reaction turbines. The Electrical Development Company of Ontario are erecting a power house to contain II units of 12,500 h.p. each. The Ontario Power Company are carrying out another scheme for developing 200,000 h.p. by twin inward flow turbines of 12,000 h.p. each. Lastly the Niagara Falls Power and Manufacturing Company on the United States side have a station giving 5,000 h.p. and are constructing another to furnish 100,000 h.p. The mean flow of the Niagara river is about 222,000 cub. ft. per second with a fall of 160 ft. The works in progress if completed will utilize 650,000 h.p. and require 48,000 cub. ft. per second or 21% % of the mean How of the river (Unwin, “ The Niagara Falls Power Stations, ” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 1906). § 189. Dijferent Forms of Turbine Wheel.-The wheel of a turbine f FIG. 190. or part of the machine on which the water acts is an annular space, furnished with curved vanes dividing it into passages exactly or lr iv I OH fhe Outside of the Case' A Worm }vh@<>1 0H one of the, roughly rectangular in cross section. For radial flow turbines the spindles is rotated by a worm d, the motion being thus slow, wheel may have the form A or B, fig. 192, A being most usual with "" A 4 W. I -'r ' 4- — —7, ,~-~- B:gn-...Pg —.

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