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HYDRAULICS


relative velocity v-u making an angle gr with the direction of the vane's motion. Combining this with the velocity u of the vane, the absolute velocity of the water leaving the vane will bew § Bc. The component of -w in the direction of motion of the vane is Ba=Bb4ab =u-(11-u) cos ~a.' Hence

if Q is the quantity of

water reaching 'the vane

per second the changehof momentum per second in

the direction of the vanc's B a 6 motion is (GS/g)[v-{uv-u)¢0S°1}l=(/g)(v-u) cos a). R a.=0°,

cos a.=I, and the 'change

of momentum per second,

which is eq-ual to the

effort driving the vane, is

/4* P=2(GQ/g)(z/-u). The

work done on the vane is

Pu=2(GQ/g)(v-u)u. If a

series of vanes are interposed

in succession, the

quantity of water impinging

on the vanes per second is the total discharge of the' nozzle, and the energy expended at the nozzle is GQv”/zg. Hence the efficiency of the arrangement is, when a =0°, neglecting friction, 1/=2P1¢/GQv'=4(v-"lu/v'.

which is a maximum and equal to unity if u=%v. In that case the whole energy of the jet is usefully expended in driving the series of vanes. In practice a cannot be quite zero or the water leaving one vane would strike the back of the negt advancing vane. Fig. 203 shows a Pelton vane. The water divides each way, and leaves the vane on each side in a direction nearly parallel to the direction of motion of the vane. The best velocity of the vane is very approximately half the velocity of the jet.

§ 202. Regulation of the Pelton Wheel.-At first Pelton wheels were adjusted to varying loads merely by throttling the supply. This method involves a total loss of part of the head at the sluice or throttle valve. In addition as the working head is reduced, the relation between wheel velocity and jet velocity is no longer that of greatest efficiency. Next a plan was adopted of deflecting the jet so that only part of the water reached the wheel when the load was reduced, the rest going to waste. This involved the use of an equal quantity of water for large and small loads, butit had, what in some cases is an advantage, the effect of preventing any water hammer in the supply pipe due to the action of the regulator. In most cases now regulation is effected by varying the section of the jet. A conical needle in the nozzle can be advanced or withdrawn so as to occupy more or less of the aperture of the nozzle. Such a needle can be controlled by an ordinary governor. U 4/

""';£:f?

H

FIG. 205.

§ 2o3. General Considerations on the Choice of a Type of Turbine.-The circumferential speed of any turbine is necessarily a fraction of the initial velocity of the water, and therefore is greater as the head is greater. In reaction turbines with complete admission ~the number of revolutions per minute becomes inconveniently great, for the diameter cannot be increased beyond certain limits without greatly reducing the efficiency. In impulse turbines with partial admission the diameter can be chosen arbitrarily and the number of revolutions kept down. on high falls to any desired amount. Hence broadly reaction turbines are better and less costly on low falls, and impulse turbines on high falls. For variable water How impulse; turbines have some advantage, being more efficiently regulated. On the other hand, impulse turbines lose etiiciency seriously if their speed varies from the normal speed due to the head. If the head is very variable, as it often is on low falls, and the turbine must run at the same speed whatever the head, the impulse turbine is not suitable. Reaction turbines can be constructed so as to overcome this difficulty to a great extent. Axial How turbines with vertical shafts have the disadvantage that in addition to the weight of the turbine there is an unbalanced water pressure to be carried by the footstep or collar bearing. In radial flow turbines the hydraulic pressures are balanced. The application of turbines to drive dynamos directly has involved some new conditions. The electrical engineer generally desires a high speed of rotation, and a very constant speed at all times. The reaction turbine is generally more suitable than the impulse turbine. As the diameter of the turbine depends on the quantity of water and cannot be much varied without great.ineEiciency, a. difficulty arises on low falls. This has been, met by constructing four independent reaction turbines on the same shaft, each having of course the di-ameter suitable for one-quarter of the whole discharge, and having a higher speed of rotation than a larger turbine. The turbines at Rheinfelden and Chevres are so constructed. » To ensure constant speed of rotation when the head varies considerably without serious inefficiency, an axial flow turbine is generally used. It is constructed of three or four concentric rings of vanes, with independent regulating sluices, forming practically independent turbines of different radii. Any one of these or any combination can be used* according to the state of the water. With a high fall the turbine of largest radius only is used, and the speed of rotation is less than with a turbine of smaller radius. On the other hand, as the fall decreases the inner turbines are used either singly or together, according to the power required. .At the Ztirich Waterworks there are turbines of go h.p. on a fall varying from rcs ft. to 4% ft. The power and speed are kept constant. Each turbine has three concentric rings. The outermost ring gives go h.p. with 105 cub. it. per second and the maximum fall. The outer and middle compartments 'give the same power with 140 cub. ft. per second and a fall of 7 ft. ro in. All three compartments working together develop the power with about 250 cub. ft. per second. In some tests the efficiency was 74% with the outer ring working alone, 7 5.4% with the outer and middle ring working and a. fall of 7 ft., and 80-7 % with all the rings working. V I § 204. Speed Go-uerning.»-When turbines are used to drive dynamos direct, the question of speed regulation is of great importance. Steam engines using a light elastic fluid can be easily regulated by governors acting on throttle or expansion valves. It is different with water turbines using a fluid of great inertia.. 2

U i I

Q

L .. f .

li A

~, "" 1351 . .... w

-~- {@» M( f., ,, -0,1

vs

7 R ..., . . . ., .. ., , ., .

I ° .-»I ..

=, -

E3.

nl cy

W .

~ .

N.
- '|'

ty j '&

/ i"

(EJ hai

I || *

m @! | .

4 'iiill — r R"””"

Flo. 206.

In one of the Niagara pen stocks there are 400 tons of water flowing at ro ft. per second, opposing enormous resistance to rapid h change of speed of How. The sluices of water turbines also are

necessarily large and heavy. Hence relay governors must be