There is a monograph on Iamblichus by G. E. Hebenstreit (De Iamblichi, philosophi Syri, doctrina, Leipzig, 1764), and one of the De myst. by Harless (Das Buch v. d. ägypt. Myst., Munich, 1858). The best accounts of Iamblichus are those of Zeller, Phil. d. Griechen, iii. 2, pp. 613 sq., 2nd ed.; E. Vacherot, Hist. de l’école d’Alexandrie (1846), ii. 57 sq.; J. Simon, Hist. de l’école d’Alexandrie (1845); A. E. Chaignet, Histoire de la psychologie des Grecs (Paris, 1893) v. 67-108; T. Whittaker, The Neo-Platonists (Cambridge, 1901).
IAMBLICHUS, of Syria, the earliest of the Greek romance writers, flourished in the 2nd century A.D. He was the author of Βαβυλωνιακά, the loves of Rhodanes and Sinonis, of which an epitome is preserved in Photius (cod. 94). Garmus, a legendary king of Babylon, forces Sinonis to marry him and throws Rhodanes into prison. The lovers manage to escape, and after many singular adventures, in which magic plays a considerable part, Garmus is overthrown by Rhodanes, who becomes king of Babylon. According to Suidas, Iamblichus was a freedman, and a scholiast’s note on Photius further informs us that he was a native Syrian (not descended from Greek settlers); that he borrowed the material for his romance from a love story told him by his Babylonian tutor, and that he subsequently applied himself with great success to the study of Greek. A MS. of the original in the library of the Escorial is said to have been destroyed by fire in 1670. Only a few fragments have been preserved, in addition to Photius’s epitome.
See Scriptores erotici, ed. A. Hirschig (1856) and R. Hercher (1858); A. Mai, Scriptorum veterum nova collectio, ii.; E. Rohde, Der griechische Roman (1900).
IANNINA (i.e. “the city of St John”; Gr. Ioannina; Turk Yaniá; also written Janina, Jannina, and, according to its Albanian pronunciation, Yanina), the capital of the vilayet of Iannina, Albania, European Turkey. Pop. (1905) about 22,000. The largest ethnical groups in the population are the Albanian and Greek; the purest form of colloquial Greek is spoken here among the wealthy and highly educated merchant families. The position of Iannina is strikingly picturesque. At the foot of the grey limestone mass of Mount Mitzekeli (1500 ft.), which forms part of the fine range of hills running north from the Gulf of Arta, there lies a valley (the Hellopia of antiquity) partly occupied by a lake; and the city is built on the slopes of a slight eminence, stretching down to the western shore. It has greatly declined from the state of barbaric prosperity which it enjoyed from 1788 to 1822, when it was the seat of Ali Pasha (q.v.), and was estimated to have from 30,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. The fortress—Demir Kule or Iron Castle, which, like the principal seraglio, was built on a promontory jutting into the lake—is now in ruins. But the city is the seat of a Greek archbishop, and still possesses many mosques and churches, besides synagogues, a Greek college (gymnasium), a library and a hospital. Sayades (opposite Corfu) and Arta are the places through which it receives its imports. The rich gold and silver embroidery for which the city has long been famous is still one of the notable articles in its bazaar; but the commercial importance of Iannina has notably declined since the cession of Arta and Thessaly to Greece in 1881. Iannina had previously been one of the chief centres of the Thessalian grain trade; it now exports little except cheese, hides, bitumen and sheepskins to the annual value of about £120,000; the imports, which supply only the local demand for provisions, textile goods, hardware, &c., are worth about double that sum.
The lake of Iannina (perhaps to be identified with the Pambotus or Pambotis of antiquity) is 6 m. long, and has an area of 24 sq.m., with an extreme depth of less than 35 ft. In time of flood it is united with the smaller lake of Labchistas to the north. There are no affluents of any considerable size, and the only outlets are underground passages or katavothra extending for many miles through the calcareous rocks.
The theory supported by W. M. Leake (Northern Greece, London, 1835) that the citadel of Iannina is to be identified with Dodona, is now generally abandoned in favour of the claims of a more southern site. As Anna Comnena, in describing the capture of the town (τὰ Ἰοάννινα) by Bohemond in 1082, speaks of the walls as being dilapidated, it may be supposed that the place existed before the 11th century. It is mentioned from time to time in the Byzantine annals, and on the establishment of the lordship of Epirus by Michael Angelus Comnenus Ducas, it became his capital. In the middle ages it was successively attacked by Serbs, Macedonians and Albanians; but it was in possession of the successors of Michael when the forces of the Sultan Murad appeared before it in 1430 (cf. Hahn, Alban. Studien, Jena , pp. 319-322). Since 1431 it has continued under Turkish rule.
Descriptions of Iannina will be found in Holland’s Travels (1815); Hughes, Travels in Greece, &c. (1830); H. F. Tozer, Researches in the Highlands of Turkey (London, 1869). See also Albania and the authorities there cited.
IAPETUS, in Greek mythology, son of Uranus and Gaea, one of the Titans, father of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus and Menoetius, the personifications of certain human qualities (Hesiod, Theog. 507). As a punishment for having revolted against Zeus, he was imprisoned in Tartarus (Homer, Iliad, viii. 479) or underneath the island of Inarime off the coast of Campania (Silius Italicus xii. 148). Hyginus makes him the son of Tartarus and Gaea, and one of the giants. Iapetus was considered the original ancestor of the human race, as the father of Prometheus and grandfather of Deucalion. The name is probably identical with Japhet (Japheth), and the son of Noah in the Greek legend of the flood becomes the ancestor of (Noah) Deucalion. Iapetus as the representative of an obsolete order of things is described as warring against the new order under Zeus, and is naturally relegated to Tartarus.
See F. G. Welcker, Griechische Götterlehre, i. (1857); C. H. Völcker, Die Mythologie des Iapetischen Geschlechtes (1824); M. Mayer, Giganten und Titanen (1887).
IAPYDES, or Iapodes, one of the three chief peoples of Roman Illyria. They occupied the interior of the country on the north between the Arsia (Arsa) and Tedanius (perhaps the Zermanja), which separated them from the Liburnians. Their territory formed part of the modern Croatia. They are described by Strabo as a mixed race of Celts and Illyrians, who used Celtic weapons, tattooed themselves, and lived chiefly on spelt and millet. They were a warlike race, addicted to plundering expeditions. In 129 B.C. C. Sempronius Tuditanus celebrated a triumph over them, and in 34 B.C. they were finally crushed by Augustus. They appear to have had a foedus with Rome, but subsequently rebelled.
See Strabo iv. 207, vii. 313-315; Dio Cassius xlix. 35; Appian, Illyrica, 10, 14, 16; Livy, Epit. lix. 131; Tibullus iv. 1. 108; Cicero, Pro Balbo, 14.
IATROCHEMISTRY (coined from Gr. ἰατρός, a physician, and “chemistry”), a stage in the history of chemistry, during which the object of this science was held to be “not to make gold but to prepare medicines.” This doctrine dominated chemical thought during the 16th century, its foremost supporters being Paracelsus, van Helmont and de la Boë Sylvius. But it gave way to the new definition formulated by Boyle, viz. that the proper domain of chemistry was “to determine the composition of substances.” (See Chemistry: I. History; Medicine.)
IAZYGES, a tribe of Sarmatians first heard of on the Maeotis, where they were among the allies of Mithradates the Great. Moving westward across Scythia, and hence called Metanastae, they were on the lower Danube by the time of Ovid, and about A.D. 50 occupied the plains east of the Theiss. Here, under the general name of Sarmatae, they were a perpetual trouble to the Roman province of Dacia. They were divided into freemen and serfs (Sarmatae Limigantes), the latter of whom had a different manner of life and were probably an older settled population enslaved by nomad masters. They rose against them in A.D. 334, but were repressed by foreign aid. Nothing is heard of Iazyges or Sarmatae after the Hunnish invasions. Graves at Keszthely and elsewhere in the Theiss valley, shown by their contents to belong to nomads of the first centuries A.D., are referred to the Iazyges.
(E. H. M.)
IBADAN, a town of British West Africa, in Yorubaland, Southern Nigeria, 123 m. by rail N.E. of Lagos, and about 50 m. N.E. of Abeokuta. Pop. (1910) estimated at 150,000. The town occupies the slope of a hill, and stretches into the valley