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articles; in the present state of uncertainty as to their position, Palaeospondylus and the Ostracodermi are best placed hors cadre and will be dealt with under these names.

The three subclasses here adopted correspond exactly with those proposed in Theo. Gill's classification of the recent fishes (“ Families and Subfamilies of Fishes, ” Mem. Nat. Ac. Sci. vi. 1803), except that they are regarded by that authority as classes.

The period dealt with in this chapter, ushered in by the publication of Giinther's Introduction to the Study of Fishes, has been one of extraordinary activity in every branch of ichthyology, recent and fossil. A glance at the Zoological Record, published by the Zoological Society of London, will show the ever-increasing number of monographs, morphological papers and systematic contributions, which appear year after year. The number of new genera and species which are being proposed is amazing, but it is difficult to tell how many of them will simply go to swell the already overburdened synonymy. Perhaps a reasonable estimate of the living species known at the present day would assess their number at about 13, o0o.

It is much to be regretted that there is not a single general modern systematic work on fishes. The most important treatises, the 7th volume of the Cambridge Natural History, by T. W. Bridge and G. A. Boulenger, and D. S. Jordan's Guide to the Study of Fishes, only profess to give definitions of the families with enumerations of the principal genera. Giinther's Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum therefore remains the only general descriptive treatise, but its last volume dates from 1870, and the work is practically obsolete. A second. edition of it was begun in 1894, but only one volume, by Boulenger, has appeared, and the subject is so vast that it seems doubtful now whether any one will ever have the time and energy to repeat Gtinther's achievement. The fish fauna of the different parts of the world will have to be dealt with separately, and it is in this direction that descriptive ichthyology is most likely to progress.

North America, the fishes of which were imperfectly known in 1880, now possesses a Descriptive Catalogue in 4 stout volumes, by D. S. Jordan and B. W. Evermann, replacing the synopsis brought out in 1882 by D. S. Jordan and C. H. Gilbert. A similar treatise should embrace all the fresh-water species of Africa, the fishes of the two principal river systems, the Nile and the Congo, having recently been worked out by G. A1 Boulenger. Japanese ichthyology has been taken in hand by D. S. Jordan and his pupils.

The fishes of the deep sea have been the subject of extensive monographs by L. Vaillant (Travailleur and Talisman), A. Gunther (Challenger), A. Alcock (Investigator), R. Collett (Hirondelle), S. Garman (Albatross) and a general résumé up IO 1895 was provided in G. B. Goode's and T. H. Bean's Oceanic Ichthyology. More than 600 true bathybial fishes are known from depths of 1000 fathoms and more, and a great deal of evidence has been accumulated to show the general transition of the surface fauna into the bathybial.

A recent departure has been the exploration of the Antarctic fauna. Three general reports, on the results of the Southern Cross, the Belgica and the Swedish South Polar expeditions, had already been published in 1907, and others on the Scotia and Discovery were in preparation. No very striking new types of fishes have been discovered, but the results obtained are sufficient to entirely disprove the theory of bipolarity which some naturalists had advocated. Much has been done towards ascertaining the life-histories of the fishes of economic ixnportance, both in Europe and in North America, and our

knowledge of the larval and post-larval forms has made great progress.

Wonderful activity has been displayed in the field of palaeontology, and the careful working out of the morphology of the archaic types has led to a better understanding of the general lines of evolution; but it is to be regretted that very little light on the relationships of the living groups of Telcostcans has been thrown by the discoveries of palaeontologists. 24-9

Among the most remarkable additions made in recent years, the work of R. H. Traquair on the problematic fishes Palaeospondylus, Thelodus, Drepanaspis, Lanarkia, Ateleaspis, Birkenia and Lanasius, ranks foremost; next to it must be placed the researches of A. S. Woodward and Bashford Dean on the primitive shark Cladoselachc, and of the same authors, J. S. Newberry, C. R. Eastman, E. W. Claypole and L. Hussakof, on the Arthrodira, a group the affinities of which have been much discussed.

Authorities.*Tl1C following selection from the extremely extensive ichthyological literature which has appeared during the period 1880-1906 will supplement the bibliographical notice appended to section I. I. The General Subject: A. Gunther, Introduction to the Study of Fishes (Edinburgh, 1880); B. Dean, Fishes Living and Fossil (New York, 1895); T. W. Bridge and G. A. Boulenger, “ Fishes, ” Cambridge Natural History, vii. (1904); D. S. Jordan, Guide to the Study of Fishes (2 vols., New York, 1905). II. Palaeontologicalz A. Fritsch, Fauna der Gaskohle und der Kalksteine der Permformation Bohmens (vols. i.-iii., Prague, IS79-1894); K. A. von Zittel, II db I d, " " 1' 'an

uct er l(Zl(l07L1010{>Z€, vol. ui. (Munich, 1887), A. Smith W00dward, Catalogue of Fossil Fishes in the British Museum, vols. i.~iii. (London, 1889-1895); A. Smith /Voodward. Outlines of Vertebrate Palaeontology for Students of Zoology (Cambridge, 1898); J. S. Newberry, “ The Palaeozoic Fishes of North America, " Mon. U.S. Geol. Surv. vol. xvi. (1889); J. V. Rohon, “Die obersilurischen Fische von Osel, Thyestidae und Trematagpidae, " Mém. Ac. Imp. Sc. St-Pétersb. xxxviii. (189?; O. Jaekel, ie Selachier von Bolca, ein Beitrag zur Morphogenie er Wirbeltiere (Berlin, 1894); B. Dean, “ Contributions to the Morphology of Cladoselache, " Iourn. M orphol. ix. (1894)§ R. H. Traquair, “ The Asterolcpidae, " Illon. Palaeont. Soc. (18 4-1904, in progress); “ Report on Fossil Fishes collected by the Geological Survey of Scotland in the Silurian Rocks of the South of Scotiand, " Trans. Roy Soc. Edin. xxxix. (1899); L. Dollo, “ Sur la phylogénie des Dipneustes, " Bull. Soc. Beige Géol. vol. ix. (1895); E. W. Claypole, f' The Ancestry of the Upper Devonian Placoderms of Ohio, " Amer. Geol. xvii. (1896); B. Dean, “ Palaeontological Notes, ” Mem. N. Y. Ac. ii. (1901); A. Stewart and S. W. Williston, “ Cretaceous Fishes of Kansas, " Univ. Geol. Surv. Kansas, vi. (Topeka, 1901); A. S. Woodward, “ Fossil Fishes of the English Chalk, ” Palaeontogr. Soc. (1902-1903, etc.); R. H. Traquair, “The Lower Devonian Fishes of Gemiinden, " Roy. Soc. Edin. Trans. 40 (1903); W. J. and I. B. J. Sollas, “ Account of the Devonian Fish Palaeospondylus, " Phil. Trans. 196 (1903); C. T. Regan, “Phylogeny of the Teleostomi, " Ann. Eb' Mag. N.H. (7) 13 (1904); C. R. Eastman, “Fishes of Monte Bolca, " Bull. Mus. C.Z. 46 (1904); “Structure and Relations of Mylostoma, " Op. cit. 2 (1906); O. Abel, “ Fossile Flugfische, " Jahrb. Geol. Reichsanst. 56 (Wien, 1906); L. Hussakof. “ Studies on the Arthrodira, " Mem. Amer. Mus. N.H. ix. (1906). III. Faunistic (recent fishes): (A) EUROPE: E. Bade, Die mitteleuropaischen Sitsswasserfische (2 vols., Berlin, 1901-1902). GREAT BRITAIN! F. Day, The Fishes of Great Britain and Ireland (2 vols., London, 1880-1884); J. T. Cunningham, The Natural History of the Marketable Marine Fishes of the British Islands (London, 1896); W. C. M'Intosh and A. T. Masterman, The Life-Histories of the British Marine Food-Fishes (London, 1897); Sir H. Maxwell, British Fresh—water Fish (London, 1904); F. G. Aflalo, British Salt-'water Fish (London, 1904). Numerous important researches into the development, life-conditions and distributions, carried out at the Biological Laboratories at Plymouth and St Andrews and during the survey of the fishing grounds of Ireland, have been published by W. L. Calderwood, J. T. Cunningham, E. W. L. Holt, W. C. M'Intosh, J. W. Fulton, W. Garstang and Prince in the fourn. Mar. Biolog. Assoc., The Reports of the Fishery Board of Scotland, Scient. Trans. R. Dublin Soc. and other periodicals. (B) DENMARK AND ScAND1NAv1A: W. Lilljeborg, Sveriges och Norges Fiskar (3 vols., Upsala, 1881-1891); F. A. Smith, A History of Scandinavian Fishes by B. Fries, C. U. Ekstrom and C .Sundevall, with'Plates by W. von Wright (second edition, revised and completed by F. A. S., Stockholm, 1892); A. Stuxberg, Sveriges och Norges Fiskar (Giiteborg, 1895); C. G. J. Petersen, Report of the Danish Biological Station (Copenhagen, 1802-1900) (annual reports containing much information on fishes of and fishing in the Danish seas). (C) FINLAND: G. Sundman and A. J. Mela, Finland's Fiskar (Helsingfors, 1883-189I). (D) GERMANY:~ I§ . Mobius and F. Heincke, “ Die Fische der Ostsee, " Bericht Cornmiss. Untersuch. deutsch. Meere (Kiel, 1883); F. Heincke, E, Ehrenbaum and G. Duncker have published their investigations into the life history and development of the fishes of Helxgolancl in Wissenschaftl. Meeresuntersuchungen (Kiel and Leipzig, 1894j-1899); (E) SWITZER-LAND: V. Fatio, Faune des vertébrés de la Suisse: Poissons (2 vols., Geneva and Basel, 1882-1800). (F) FRANcE: E. Moreau, Histozre naturelle des poissons de la France (3 vols., Paris, 1881); Supplement (Paris, 1891). (G) PYRENEAN PEN1NsULA: Carlos de Braganga, Resultados das investigacbes scientijicas feitas a bordo do yacht “Amelia” Pescas maritimas, i. and ii. (Lisbon, 1899-1904). (H) ITALY AND MFDITERRANEAN: P. Doclerlein, Manuale ittiologico det

Ilfrditcrroneo (I"nlerm0, ISBI'-1801. not completed; interrupted