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254
[ANATOMY
ICHTHYOLOGY

give rise to the mesoderm. It is possible that the respiratory significance of the wall of the gill cleft has been secondarily acquired. This is indicated by the fact that they appear in some cases to be lined by an ingrowth of ectoderm. This suggests that there may have been a spreading inwards of respiratory surface from the external gills. It is conceivable that before their walls became directly respiratory the gill clefts served for the umping of fresh water over the external gills at the bases of which tihey lie. Lung.-As in the higher vertebrates, there develops in all the main groups of gnathostomatous fishes, except the Selachians, an outgrowth of the pharyngeal

— wall intimately associated with —..-. 4

~, U gaseous interchange. In the ff f Crossopterygians and Dipnoans 0 , L ' fi this pharyngeal outgrowth agrees tl t i p ' exactly in its mid ventral origin ie W /1" and in its blood-supply with the it

lungs of the higher vertebrates, tv and there can be no question about its being morphologically the same structure as it is also in function.

In the Crossopterygianthe venff trally placed slit-like glottis leads Tic into a common chamber produced anteriorly into two horns and continued backwards into two “ lungs." These are smooth, thin- walled, saccular structures, the right one small, the left very large

and extending to the hind end of the splanchnocoele. In the Dipj, noans the lung has taken a dorsal


FI<1.9.-l, ung ofNeocera!o¢lux, opened in its lower half to show its cellular pouches. o, Right

half; }», Left half; c, Cellular pouches; e, Pulmonary vein;

f. Arterial blood-vessel; oe,

Uesophzigus, opened to show

glottis (g/.)

away with the force of such a

position close under the vertebral column and above the splanchnocoele. Its walls are sacculated,

almost spongy in Lepidosiren and Protoptems, so as to give increase to the respiratory surface. In

Nexeralodus (Hg. 9) an indication of division into two halves is seen in the presence of two prominent

longitudinal ridges, one dorsal and one ventral. In Lepidosiren and Protopterus the organ is completely divided except at its anterior end into a right and a left lung. The anterior portion of the lung or lungs is connected with the median ventral glottis by a short wide vestibule which lies on the right side of the oesophagus

In the Teleostei the representative of the lung, here termed

the swim bladder, has for its

predominant function a hydrostatic one; it acts as a float.

It arises as a diverticulum of the gut-wall which may retain a

tubular connexion with the gut

(p/zysostomalous condition) or

may in the adult completely lose such connexion (physoclistic). It shows two conspicuous differences from the lung of other

forms: (1) it arises in the young fish as a dorsal instead of as a ventral diverticulum, and (2) it derives its blood-supply not from the sixth aortic arch but from

branches of the dorsal aorta.

These differences are held by

many to be sufficient to invalidate the homologizing of the swim bladder with the lung. The following

facts, however, appear to do

contention. (I) in the Dipneusti (rug. 1Vrn(rrf1h»r{u v) the lung appztrxltlls has zu'qui rcd a dorsal position. but its <'~»tur-xiou with the ulirl-'eutr;1l glottis is a'<ym|nct |'1vul, passing round the right side of the gut. Were the predominant function of the lung in such a form to become hydrostatic we might expect the course of evolution to lead to a shifting of the glottis dorsal wards so as to bring it nearer to the definitive situation of the lung. (2) In Erythrrfnurand other Characinids the glottis is not mid-ventral but decidedly lateral in position, suggesting either a retention of, or a~ return to, ancestral stages in the dorsal ward migration of the glottis. (3) The blood-supply of the Teleostean swim bladder is from branches of the dorsal aorta, which may be distributed over a long anteroposterior extent of that vessel. Embryology, however, shows that the swim bladder arises as a localized diverticulum. It follows that the blood-supply from a long stretch of the aorta can hardly be primitive. We should rather expect the primitive blood-supply to be from the main arteries of the pharyngeal wall, i.e. from the hinder aortic arch as is the case with the lungs of other forms. Now in Amia at least we actually find such a blood supply, there being here a pulmonary artery corresponding with that in lung-possessing forms. Taking these points into consideration there seems no valid reason for doubting that in lung and swim bladder we are dealing with the same morphological structure. Function.-In the Crossopterygians and Dipnoans the lung is used for respiration, while at the same time fulfilling a hydrostatic function. Amongst the Actinopterygians a few forms still use it for respiration, but its main function is that of a float. In Connexion with this function there exists an interesting compensatory mechanism whereby the amount of gas in the swim bladder may be diminished (by absorption), or, on the other hand, increased, so as to counteract alterations in specific gravity produced, e.g. by change of pressure with'change of depth. This mechanism is specially developed in physoclistic forms, where there occur certain. glandular patches (“ red glands ”) in the lining epithelium of the swim bladder richly stuffed with capillary blood-vessels and serving apparently to secrete gas into the swim bladder. That the gas in the swim bladder is produced by some vital process, such as secretion, is already indicated by its composition, as it may contain nearly 90% of oxygen in deep-sea forms or a similar proportion of nitrogen in fishes from deep lakes, Le. its composition is quite different from what it would be were it accumulated within the swim bladder by mere ordinary diffusion processes. Further, the formation of gas is shown by experiment to be controlled by branches of the vagus and sympathetic nerves in an exactly similar fashion to the secretion of saliva in a salivary gland. (See below for relations of swim bladder to ear). Of the important non-respiratory derivatives of the pharyngeal ~wall (thyroid, thymus, postbranchial bodies, &c.), only the thyroid calls for special mention, as important 'clues to its evolutionary history are afforded by the lampreys. In the larval lamprey the thyroid develops as a longitudinal groove on the pharyngeal floor. From the anterior end of this groove there pass a pair of peripharyngeal ciliated tracts to the dorsal side of the pharynx where they pass backwards to the hind end of the pharynx. Morphologically the whole apparatus corresponds closely with the endostyle and peripharyngeal and dorsal ciliated tracts of the pharynx of Amphioxus. The correspondence extends to function, as the open thyroid' groove secretes a sticky mucus which passes into the pharyngeal cavity for the entanglement of food particles exactly as in Amphioxus. Later on the thyroid groove becomes shut off from the pharynx; its secretion now accumulates in the lumina of its interior and it functions as a ductless gland as in the Gnathostomata. The only conceivable explanation of, this developmental history of the thyroid in the lamprey is that it is a repetition of phylogenetic history.,

Behind the pharynx comes the main portion of the alimentary canal concerned with the digestion and absorption of the food* This forms a tube varying greatly in length, more elongated and coiled in the higher Teleostomes, shorter and straighter in the Selachians, Dipnoans and lower Teleostomes. The oesophagus or gullet, usually forming a short, wide tube, leads into the glandular, more or .less dilated stomach. This is frequently in the form of a letter J, the longer limb being continuous with the gullet, the shorter with the intestine. The curve of the J may be as in Polypterus and the perch produced l>a<'l-twarrls into a large po<'l<ct. The intestine is usually marked off from the stomach by a ring-like sphincter muscle forming the