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362
INCUBATION AND INCUBATORS


possession of a forked end, but it is carried to the farther end (not shown in the diagram) of the water tank, while the outlet pipe opens from about the middle of the tank. The inlet pipe is connected with the inner portion of the boiler and the outlet one with the outer portion. The result of this adjustment of the parts is that the warmer water of the inner boiler, being specifically lighter than the cooler water of the outer boiler, rises up and passes through the inlet pipe (I) and is discharged into the tank through, the two divergent orifices of the fork (F). Here the water strikes the side wall of the farther end of the tank and is reflected back along the back and front walls towards the nearer side. Hence it is again reflected, but in the opposite direction, and now forms a central current, which is directed towards the centrally situated orifice of the outlet tube (O). Through this it passes to the outer boiler, and sinking towards the bottom, reaches the base of the inner boiler. Here it becomes heated and lighter and consequently rises to the top, and once more passes through the inlet pipe to the water tank. The warm water thus travels round the outer walls of the tank and the cooled water is conducted away along the middle portion. A more equable distribution of temperature over the roof of the incubating chamber is thus ensured than would be the case if the heated water were discharged either into the centre or at any other single point only of the tank. To a very large extent, the efficiency of this apparatus depends upon the approximately perfect performance of the lamp. A good, steadily burning one should be employed, and only the best oil used; for, should the wick become fouled the flame cannot freely burn. For this reason it is better to use gas, whenever obtainable. The maintenance of an approximately uniform temperature is obtained by allowing the heated air of the egg-drawer to escape through the two Ventilating shafts (V). The swing-valves of these are opened or closed by means of the regulator (R). This latter consists of a glass bowl prolonged into a tube, about 8 in. long and three-eighths of an inch in diameter. The glass tube swings upon an axis (A) which is situated as near as possible to the bowl of the regulator. The axis is connected with a crank (C') which is disposed so as to act as a lever upon the vertical shaft (S), which in its turn is connected with the upper crank (C); this works the axis (A') of the swing-valves, and so can open or close the apertures of the ventilating pipes. The bowl of the regulator is filled with mercury to such an extent that at the temperature of 100° F., and when the tube is slightly inclined upwards from the horizontal it just flows slightly into the tube from the bowl. On the lever-crank (C') a weight is slung by a sliding adjustment, and is so placed that when the temperature of the egg-drawer is IO3° it just balances the tube of the regulator when it is slightly inclined upwards. Should the temperature of the drawer now rise higher the mercury flows towards the distant end of the tube and, causing it to fall down, brings about a rotation of the regulator axis and as a consequence the opening of the ventilating valves. A transverse stay prevents the limb of the regulator from quite reaching the horizontal when it falls. As the temperature cools down the mercury contracts and retraces to the nearer end of the tube and to the bowl, and consequently results in the upward inclination of the limb; the valves are thus closed again. The egg-drawer (E) is specially constructed so as to imitate as nearly as possible the natural conditions that exist under a sitting hen. The drawer is of wood and contains a zinc tray (Z) into which cold water is placed. Fitting into the zinc tray is another zinc compartment, the floor of which is made of a number of zinc strips (X) transversely arranged and placed in relation to each other like the limbs of an inverted A. The limbs are so disposed that those of one scrics do not touch the adjacent ones, and in fact a space is left between them. Thus a number of parallel troughs are formed, each of which opens below into the moist air chamber of the cold water tray beneath. In practice these troughs are covered with flannel which is allowed to dip into the water of the tray. Thus the eggs lie in a series of damp troughs and their lower surfaces are therefore damper and colder than their upper ones. This incubator, if carefully worked and the necessary practical details observed, has the reputation of being an eflcicient machine. Somewhat similar to the Halsted incubator, but differing from it in the nature of the boiler and in the temperature regulator, is the Graves incubator, made in Boston, U.S.A. The incubator itself (fig. 3) consists of an incubating or egg-drawer (E) heated from above by a warm-water tank (T). Below the egg-drawer is a tank containing cold water, the vapour of which passes through the perforated floor of the former and keeps the air of the egg-chamber slightly humid. Above the warm-water tank is an air chamber (AC) to serve as a non-conducting medium and to prevent therefore undue loss of heat. Above this is a. nursery or drying chamber (N), closed in, with a movable lid. The warm-water tank is heated b means of a simple boiler (B) from which an inlet tube (I) carries heated water to the tank; the tube traverses the length of the tank and discharges at its farther end (not shown in the diagram). From the nearer end of the tank an outlet tube (O) passes out and opens into the boiler at 11 slightly higher level than the inlet one. The boiler is heated by an evenly burning lamp below, of special construction. The rectangular tube throug which the wick passes is bevelled at its outer end, and u on this bevelled edge a metal flap (F) is allowed to rest more or Tess l I I | closely, according as the flame is to be-smaller or larger respectively. The wickis, of course, bevelled to correspond to the form of its tube. The metal flap is raised or depressed by means of levers connected with the heat-regulator. When it is depressed upon the wick the flame is lessened; and it becomes proportionately bigger as the flap is raised more and more. The heat re ulator consists of l t b T h' h W M W

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3 Q it e- ~F~ - ~. ' sa f lé Z ' ="” A , u —f - . M I V fliiilolilililnllli L | » | ll j ”' :-', hm -ZF 5/, - r //' . "' ' 5; .- 1 ""' *""" “° "- / 0 Q i. T: -; /' 1 l *, 3% 1 . Ij § -:Iii-:»-i l-1'-} T'€~".f Q T; - -L - ~;-2 . 3135: -:i-t or l ' ¢ Il ge E ' S, 'A A / Q l 5' -r as - 1. 4- -1 areas.-».rr:| s a- /I V 0 égf. FIG. 4.-Hearson's Incubator. in the simplicity and ingenuity of t-he heat regulator, and in that 'the tubes which traverse the water tank are hot-air flues, carrying the air heated by the flame and not warm water. Consequently a further simplification is introduced inasmuch as no boiler is required. The essential features of this incubator are shown in fig. 4., The internal parts of the incubator are insulated by a double wall, the inter space being packed by a non-conducting material, which .is not shown in the figure. The incubation or egg-drawer (E) is heated by the warm-water tank (T). Beneath the egg-drawer is a zinc tray (Z), so constructed that in the central part the floor is raised up into a short cylinder. Around the raised cylinder is a wide trough containing water and into this dips a canvas cloth which is stretched out over a perforated zinc support (F). By this means an extended

moistened surface is produced which allows of a rapid evaporation.