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INDABA—INDEPENDENCE

INDABA, a Zulu-Bantu word, formed from the inflexional prefix in and daba, business, news, for an important conference held by the “indunas” or principal men of the Kaffir (Zulu-Xosa) tribes of South Africa. Such “indabas” may include only the “indunas” of a particular tribe, or may be held with the representatives of other tribes or peoples.


INDAZOLES (Benzopyrazoles), organic substances containing the ring system

Hexagon, point up.jpg CH Rangle.svgNH.
|
BSlash45.png N

The parent substance indazole, C7H6N2, was obtained by E. Fischer (Ann. 1883, 221, p. 280) by heating ortho-hydrazine cinnamic acid,

C6H4Langle.svg CH = CH·COOH =C2H4O2+C7H6N2.
NH·NH2

It has also been obtained by heating ortho-diazoaminotoluene with acetic acid and benzene (F. Heusler, Ber., 1891, 24, p. 4161).

C6H4Langle.svg CH3 =C7H7NH2+C7H6N2.
N:N·NHC7H7

It crystallizes in needles (from hot water), which melt at 146.5° C. and boil at 269°-270° C. It is readily soluble in hot water, alcohol and dilute hydrochloric acid. Nitrous acid converts it into nitrosoindazole; whilst on heating with the alkyl iodides it is converted into alkyl indazoles.

A series of compounds isomeric with these alkyl derivatives is known, and can be considered as derived from the ring system

Hexagon, point up.jpg NH GreaterThanOrEqual.svgN.
 
BSlash45.pngCH

These isomers are called isindazoles, and may be prepared by the reduction of the nitroso-ortho-alkylamino-acetophenones with zinc dust and water or acetic acid. The indazoles are weak bases, which crystallize readily. Phenyl indazole, on reduction with sodium and absolute alcohol, gives a dihydro derivative (K. L. Paal, Ber., 1891, 24, p. 963).

For other derivatives, see E. Fischer and J. Tafel, Ann. 1885, 227, p. 314.


INDEMNITY (through Fr. indemnité, Lat. indemnis, free from damage or loss; in-, negative, and damnum, loss), in law, an undertaking, either express or implied, to compensate another for loss or damage, or for trouble or expense incurred; also the sum so paid (see Contract; and Insurance: Marine). An act of indemnity is a statute passed for the purpose either of relieving persons from disabilities and penalties to which they have rendered themselves liable or to make legal transactions which, when they took place, were illegal. An act or bill of indemnity used to be passed every session by the English parliament for the relief of those who had unwittingly neglected to qualify themselves in certain respects for the holding of offices, &c., as, for example, justices, without taking the necessary oaths. The Promissory Oaths Act 1868 rendered this unnecessary.


INDENE, C9H8, a hydrocarbon found in the fraction of the coal tar distillate boiling between 176° and 182° C., and from which it may be extracted by means of its picrate (G. Kramer, A. Spilker, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 3276). It may also be obtained by distilling the calcium salt of hydrindene carboxylic acid, C6H4(CH2)2·CH·COOH. It is an oil which boils at 179.5°-180.5°, and has a specific gravity 1.04 (15° C.). Dilute nitric acid oxidizes it to phthalic acid, and sodium reduces it in alcoholic solution to hydrindene, C9H10. A. v. Baeyer and W. H. Perkin (Ber., 1884, 17, p. 125) by the action of sodiomalonic ester on ortho-xylylene bromide obtained a hydrindene dicarboxylic ester,

C6H4(CH2Br)2 + 2CHNa(CO2C2H5)2 = 2NaBr + CH2(CO2C2H5)2 + C6H4:[CH2]2:C(CO2C2H5)2;

this ester on hydrolysis yields the corresponding acid, which on heating loses carbon dioxide and gives the monocarboxylic acid of hydrindene. The barium salt of this acid, when heated, yields indene and not hydrindene, hydrogen being liberated (W. H. Perkin, Jour. Chem. Soc., 1894, 65, p. 228). Indene vapour when passed through a red hot tube yields chrysene. It combines with nitrosyl chloride to form indene nitrosate (M. Dennstedt and C. Ahrens, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1331) and it reacts with benzaldehyde, oxalic ester and formic ester (J. Thiele, Ber., 1900, 33, p. 3395).

On the derivatives of indene see W. v. Miller, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 1883; Th. Zincke, Ber., 1887, 20, p. 2394, 1886, 19, p. 2493; and W. Roser and E. Haselhoff, Ann., 1888, 247, p. 140.


INDENTURE (through O. Fr. endenture from a legal Latin term indentura, indentare, to cut into teeth, to give a jagged edge, in modum dentium, like teeth), a law term for a special form of deed executed between two or more parties, and having counterparts or copies equal to the number of parties. These copies were all drawn on one piece of vellum or paper divided by a toothed or “indented” line. The copies when separated along this waved line could then be identified as “tallies” when brought together. Deeds executed by one party only had a smooth or “polled” edge, whence the name “deed poll.” By the Real Property Act 1845, § 5, all deeds purporting to be “indentures” have the effect of an “indenture,” even though the indented line be absent. The name “chirograph” (Gr. χεὶρ, hand, γράφειν, to write) was also early applied to such a form of deed, and the word itself was often written along the indented line (see further Deed and Diplomatic). The term “indenture” is now used generally of any sealed agreement between two or more parties, and specifically of a contract of apprenticeship, whence the phrase “to take up one’s indentures,” on completion of the term, and also of a contract by labourers to serve in a foreign country or colony (see Coolie).


INDEPENDENCE, a city and the county-seat of Jackson county, Missouri, U.S.A., 3 m. S. of the Missouri river and 10 m. E. of Kansas City. Pop. (1890) 6380, (1900) 6974 (937 negroes); (1910) 9859. The city is served by the Missouri Pacific, the Chicago & Alton, and the Kansas City Southern railways, and by an electric line and fine boulevard to Kansas City. It is situated about 1000 ft. above the sea, and is surrounded by a fertile agricultural district. The city has a small public square (surrounding the court-house) and a public library, and is the seat of St Mary’s Academy, under the control of the Sisters of Mercy. Among its manufactures are farming implements, flour and lumber. The municipality owns its electric lighting plant. Independence was laid out as a town and chosen as the county-seat in 1827, first chartered as a city in 1849 and made a city of the third-class in 1889. About 1500 Mormons, attracted by the “revelation” that this was to be a Zion, settled in and about Independence in 1831 and 1832. They contemplated building their chief temple about 1/2 m. W. of the site of the present court house, but in 1833 (partly because they invited free negroes to join them) were expelled by the “gentile” inhabitants of Independence. In 1867 a settlement of about 150 Hedrickites, or members of the “Church of Jesus Christ” (organized in Illinois in 1835), came here and secretly bought up parts of the “Temple Lot.” The heirs of the settlers of 1831–1832 conveyed the lot by deed to the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (with headquarters at Lamoni, Iowa), which brought suit against the Hedrickites, but in 1894 the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decided the case on the ground of laches in favour of the Hedrickites, who fifteen years afterwards had nearly died out. In 1867–1869 a few families belonging to the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (monogamists) settled in Independence, and in 1908 their church here had about 2000 members. Besides a large church building, they have here a printing establishment, from which is issued the weekly Zion’s Ensign (founded in 1891), and the “Independence Sanitarium” (completed in 1908). The faithful Mormons still look to Independence as the Zion of the church. In 1907 a number of Mormons from Utah settled here, moving the headquarters of the “Central States’ Mission” from Kansas City to Independence, and founded a periodical called Liahona, the Elder’s Journal. From about 1831 to 1844, when its river landing was destroyed by flood, Independence was the headquarters and outfitting point of the extensive caravan trains for the Santa Fé, Oregon and Old Salt Lake trails. During the Civil War about 300 Federals under Lieut.-Colonel D. H. Buel, occupying the town, were captured on the 16th of August 1862 by Colonel Hughes in command of 1500 Confederates, and on the 22nd of October 1864 a part of General Sterling Price’s