Charles V. into Paris,” and M. de Pastoret now obtained an order for Ingres from the Administration of Fine Arts; he was directed to treat the “Vœu de Louis XIII.” for the cathedral of Montauban. This work, exhibited at the Salon of 1824, met with universal approbation: even those sworn to observe the unadulterated precepts of David found only admiration for the “Vœu de Louis XIII.” On his return Ingres was received at Montauban with enthusiastic homage, and found himself celebrated throughout France. In the following year (1825) he was elected to the Institute, and his fame was further extended in 1826 by the publication of Sudre’s lithograph of the “Grande Odalisque,” which, having been scorned by artists and critics alike in 1819, now became widely popular. A second commission from the government called forth the “Apotheosis of Homer,” which, replaced by a copy in the decoration of the ceiling for which it was designed, now hangs in the galleries of the second storey of the Louvre. From this date up till 1834 the studio of Ingres was thronged, as once had been thronged the studio of David, and he was a recognized chef d’école. Whilst he taught with despotic authority and admirable wisdom, he steadily worked; and when in 1834 he produced his great canvas of the “Martyrdom of Saint Symphorien” (cathedral of Autun; lithographed by Trichot-Garneri), it was with angry disgust and resentment that he found his work received with the same doubt and indifference, if not the same hostility, as had met his earlier ventures. The suffrages of his pupils, and of one or two men—like Decamps—of undoubted ability, could not soften the sense of injury. Ingres resolved to work no longer for the public, and gladly availed himself of the opportunity to return to Rome, as director of the École de France, in the room of Horace Vernet. There he executed “La Vierge à l’Hostie” (Imperial collections, St Petersburg), “Stratonice,” “Portrait of Cherubini” (Louvre), and the “Petite Odalisque” for M. Marcotte, the faithful admirer for whom, in 1814, Ingres had painted the “Chapelle Sistine.” The “Stratonice,” executed for the duke of Orleans, had been exhibited at the Palais Royal for several days after its arrival in France, and the beauty of the composition produced so favourable an impression that, on his return to Paris in 1841, Ingres found himself received with all the deference that he felt to be his due. A portrait of the purchaser of “Stratonice” was one of the first works executed after his return; and Ingres shortly afterwards began the decorations of the great hall in the Château de Dampierre, which, unfortunately for the reputation of the painter, were begun with an ardour which gradually slackened, until in 1849 Ingres, having been further discouraged by the loss of his faithful and courageous wife, abandoned all hope of their completion, and the contract with the duc de Luynes was finally cancelled. A minor work, “Jupiter and Antiope,” marks the year 1851, but Ingres’s next considerable undertaking (1853) was the “Apotheosis of Napoleon I.,” painted for the ceiling of a hall in the Hôtel de Ville; “Jeanne d’Arc” (Louvre) appeared in 1854; and in 1855 Ingres consented to rescind the resolution, more or less strictly kept since 1834, in favour of the International Exhibition, where a room was reserved for his works. Prince Napoleon, president of the jury, proposed an exceptional recompense for their author, and obtained from the emperor Ingres’s nomination as grand officer of the Legion of Honour. With renewed confidence Ingres now took up and completed one of his most charming productions—“La Source” (Louvre), a figure of which he had painted the torso in 1823, and which seen with other works in London (1862) there renewed the general sentiment of admiration, and procured him, from the imperial government, the dignity of senator. After the completion of “La Source,” the principal works produced by Ingres were with one or two exceptions (“Molière” and “Louis XIV.,” presented to the Théâtre Français, 1858; “Le Bain Turc,” 1859), of a religious character; “La Vierge de l’Adoption,” 1858 (painted for Mlle Roland-Gosselin), was followed by “La Vierge Couronnée” (painted for Mme la Baronne de Larinthie) and “La Vierge aux Enfans” (Collection Blanc); in 1859 these were followed by repetitions of “La Vierge à l’Hostie”; and in 1862 Ingres completed “Christ and the Doctors” (Musée Montauban), a work commissioned many years before by Queen Marie Amélie for the chapel of Bizy.
On the 17th of January 1867 Ingres died in his eighty-eighth year, having preserved his faculties in wonderful perfection to the last. For a moment only—at the time of the execution of the “Bain Turc,” which Prince Napoleon was fain to exchange for an early portrait of the master by himself—Ingres’s powers had seemed to fail, but he recovered, and showed in his last years the vigour which marked his early maturity. It is, however, to be noted that the “Saint Symphorien” exhibited in 1834 closes the list of the works on which his reputation will chiefly rest; for “La Source,” which at first sight seems to be an exception, was painted, all but the head and the extremities, in 1821; and from those who knew the work well in its incomplete state we learn that the after-painting, necessary to fuse new and old, lacked the vigour, the precision, and the something like touch which distinguished the original execution of the torso. Touch was not, indeed, at any time a means of expression on which Ingres seriously calculated; his constant employment of local tint, in mass but faintly modelled in light by half tones, forbade recourse to the shifting effects of colour and light on which the Romantic school depended in indicating those fleeting aspects of things which they rejoiced to put on canvas;—their methods would have disturbed the calculations of an art wholly based on form and line. Except in his “Sistine Chapel,” and one or two slighter pieces, Ingres kept himself free from any preoccupation as to depth and force of colour and tone; driven, probably by the excesses of the Romantic movement into an attitude of stricter protest, “ce que l’on sait” he would repeat, “il faut le savoir l’épée à la main.” Ingres left himself therefore, in dealing with crowded compositions, such as the “Apotheosis of Homer” and the “Martyrdom of Saint Symphorien,” without the means of producing the necessary unity of effect which had been employed in due measure—as the Stanze of the Vatican bear witness—by the very master whom he most deeply reverenced. Thus it came to pass that in subjects of one or two figures Ingres showed to the greatest advantage: in “Oedipus,” in the “Girl after Bathing,” the “Odalisque” and “La Source”—subjects only animated by the consciousness of perfect physical well-being—we find Ingres at his best. One hesitates to put “Roger and Angelique” upon this list, for though the female figure shows the finest qualities of Ingres’s work,—deep study of nature in her purest forms, perfect sincerity of intention and power of mastering an ideal conception—yet side by side with these the effigy of Roger on his hippogriff bears witness that from the passionless point of view, which was Ingres’s birthright, the weird creatures of the fancy cannot be seen.
A graphic account of “Ingres, sa vie et ses travaux,” and a complete catalogue of his works, were published by M. Delaborde in 1870, and dedicated to Mme Ingres, née Ramel, Ingres’s devoted second wife, whom he married in 1852. Allusions to the painter’s early days will be found in Delécluze’s Louis David; and amongst less important notices may be cited that by Théophile Silvestre in his series of living artists. Most of Ingres’s important works are engraved in the collection brought out by Magimel. (E. F. S. D.)
INGRESS (Lat. ingressus, going in), entrance as opposed to exit or egress; in astronomy, the apparent entrance of a smaller body upon the disk of a larger one, as it passes between the latter and the observer; in this sense it is applied especially to the beginning of a transit of a satellite of Jupiter over the disk of the planet.
INHAMBANE, a seaport of Portuguese East Africa in 23° 50′ S., 35° 25′ E. The town, which enjoys a reputation for healthiness, is finely situated on the bank of a river of the same name which empties into a bay also called Inhambane. Next to Mozambique Inhambane, which dates from the middle of the 16th century, is architecturally the most important town in Portuguese East Africa. The chief buildings are the fort, churches and mosque. The principal church is built with stone and marble brought from Portugal. The population, about 4000 in 1909, is of a motley character: Portuguese and other Europeans, Arabs, Banyans, half-castes and negroes. Its commerce was formerly