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DISCHARGE FROM ORIFICES]
53
HYDRAULICS


For the time t, during which the initial head H diminishes to any other value h, -in/(Cm/2g>} hdh//h= tdt. H 0 -'~t=29(/H -/h)/iCw1/ (2£)i = (9/¢w){~/ (2H/g) -~/ (2h/g)}-For the whole time of emptying, during which h diminishes from T = (Sl/eww (2H/g)-Comparing this with the equation for flow under a constant head, it will be seen that the time is double that required for the discharge of an equal volume under a constant head. The time of filling the lock through a sluice in the head gates is exactly the same, if the sluice is below the tail-water level. But if the sluice is above the tail-water level, then the head is constant till the level of the sluice is reached, and afterwards it diminishes with the time. PRACTICAL Use or OR1r1CEs IN GAUGING WATER § 54. If the water to be measured is passed through a known orifice under an arrangement by which the constancy of the head is ensured, the amount which passes in a given time can be ascertained by the formulae already given. It will obviously be best to make the orifices of the forms for which the coefficients are most accurately determined; hence sharp-edged orifices or notches are most commonly used. Waler I nch.-For measuring small quantities of water circular sharp-edged orifices have been used. The discharge from a circular orifice one French inch in diameter, with a head of one line above the top edge, was termed by the older hydraulic writers a water-inch. A common estimate of its value was 14 pints per minute, or 677 English cub. ft. in 24 hours. An experiment by C. Bossut gave 634 cub. ft. in 24 hours (see Navier's edition of Belidofs Arch. Hydr., p. 212). L. ]. Weisbach points out that measurements of this kind would be made more accurately with a greater head over the orifice, and he proposes that the head should be equal to the diameter of the orifice. Several equal orifices may be used for larger discharges. Pin Ferrules or Measuri1zg Cocks.-To give a tolerably definite supply of water to houses, without the expense of a meter, a ferrule with an orifice of a definite size, or a cock, is introduced in the service-pipe. If the head in the water main is constant, then a definite quantity of water would be delivered in a given time. The arrangement is not a very satisfactory one, and acts chiefly as a check on extravagant use of water. It is interesting here chiefly as an example of regulation of discharge by means of an orifice. Fig. 65 shows a cock of this kind used at Zurich. It consists of three cocks, the middle one havin Htoo, g§ , » Q ll. 12%;} f <~ Q /7 T' &:> ?é§ is ® Q < A § A mminmumxmnn /" mmm n nu Z nv ummm: un my § '§ -, %i'§ § . Q / gi' - “l ll! FIG. 65. g the orifice of the predetermined size in a small circular plate, protected by wire gauze from stoppage by impurities in the water. The cock on the right hand can be used by the consumer for emptying the pipes. The one on the left and the measuring cock are Connected by a key which can be locked by a padlock, which is under the control of the water company. § 55. M'measurement of the Flow in Streams.-To determine the quantity of water flowing off the ground in small streams, which is available for water supply or for obtaining water power, small temporary weirs are often used. These may be formed of planks supported by piles and puddled to prevent leakage. The measurement of the head may be made by a thin-edged scale at a short distance behind the weir, where the water surface has not begun to slope down to the weir and where the velocity of approach is not high. The measurements are conveniently made from a short pile driven into the bed of the river, accurately level with the crest of the weir (fig. 66). Then if at any moment the head is h, the discharge is, for a rectangular notch of breadth b, Q = § cbh/ 2gh where c=0-62; or, better, the formula in § 42 may be used. Gauging weirs are most commonly in the form of rectangular notches; and care should be taken that the crest is accurately horizontal, and that the weir is normal to the direction of flow of the stream. If the planks are thick, they should be bevelled (fig. 67), and then the edge may be protected by a metal plate about fifth in . thick to secure the requisite accuracy of fo1'm and sharpness of edge. In permanent gauging weirs, a cast steel plate is sometimes used to form the edge of the weir crest. The weir should be large enough to discharge the maximum volume flowing in the stream, and at the same time it is desirable that the minimum head should not be too small (say half a foot) to decrease the effects of errors of measurement. The section of the jet over the weir should not exceed one-fifth the section of the stream behind the weir, or the velocity of approach will need to be taken into account. A triangular notch f l |

I 1S very suitable for measurements of this kind. If the How is variable, the head h must be recorded at equidistant intervals of time, say twice daily, and then for each I2-hour period f Scale Wet r L.; .;1 4.13:;:¢; -t ~:.i -e3$§ -'- »-= -'Q—"' ': / I /Q —a -~ .».§ §§ =f:;/;=1 is =~<§ 1 ¢w1 i .r-'a- -'wary-1w1.., ,. ff: Ev:;;'7-'731: —::::°., f -'., 1 .. 1. I., ,, V - Q gy § &-f, :, ,, ,?, ,Zm, %, ¢., ,, , ~ 2 f Z f I i C

FIG. 66. the discharge must be calculated for the mean of the heads at the beginning and end of the time. As this involves a good deal of troublesome calculation, E. Sang proposed to use a scale so graduated as to read off the discharge in cubic feet per second. The lengths of the principal graduations of such a scale are easily calculated by putting Q=r, 2, 5 . in the ordinary formulae for notches; the intermediate graduations may be taken accurately enough by subdividing equally the distances between the principal graduations. The accurate measurement of the discharge of a stream by means of a weir is, however, in practice, rather more difficult than might be inferred from the simplicity of the principle of the /, -T operation. A art 6; from the difficiilty Z* of selecting a suitable coefficient of W discharge, which need not be serious if the form of the j, weir and the nature of ilts crest aire propery atten ed to, other difficulties of FIG' 67 measurement arise. weir should be very accurately determined, and if the weir is rectangular its deviations from exactness of 'level should be tested. Then the agitation of the water, the ripple on its surface, The length of the and the adhesion of the water to the scale on which the head is measured, are liable to introduce errors. Upon a weir IO ft. long, with 1 ft. depth of water fiowing over, an error of Hoooth of a foot in measuring the "head, or an error of Hooth of a foot in measuring the length of the weir, would cause an error in computing the discharge of 2 cub. ft. per minute.-Hook Gauge.-For the determination of the surface level of water, the most accurate instrument is the hook gauge used first by U. Boyden of Boston, in 1840. It consists of a fixed frame with scale and vernier. In the instrument in fig. 68 the vernier is fixed to the frame, and the scale slides vertically. The scale carries at its lower end a hook with a fine point, and the scale can be raised or lowered by a fine pitched screw. If the hook is depressed below -1 - *-1 S 3. o 1; EE fl e 1 2 é I e I e - f

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E; -; Fig. 68 the'water surface and then raised by the screw, the moment of its reaching the water surface will be very distinctly marked, by the reflection from a small capillary elevation of the water surface over the point of the hook. In ordinary light, differences of level of the water of -001 of a foot are easily detected by the hook gauge. If such

a gauge is used to determine the heads at a weir, the hook should