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INSTRUMENT—INSTRUMENTATION

specifically religious services, provides other rooms or buildings which during the week are open for the useof members and friends. Lectures, concerts, debates and social gatherings are organized; there are reading rooms, gyrnnasiums and other recreations rooms; various clubs (cycling, cricket, football) are formed. The organization of the whole is subdivided into special departments managed by committees. By these various means many persons are attracted into the atmosphere of the church's work who could not be induced to attend the formal services.

This expansion of normal church work may be traced back in England to at least as early as 1840, but the full development of the Institutional Church belongs only to the latter'eyears of the 10th century. The chief example in England is Whitetield's Central Mission in Tottenham Court Road, London, a church which, in addition to an elaborate organization on the lines above described, has an official journal. In the United States the movement may be said to date from about 1880. The name “Institutional ” was first applied to Berkeley Temple, Boston, by Dr William Iewett Tucker, then president of Dartmouth College. The obvious criticism that this epithet emphasizes the administrative and secular side to the exclusion of the spiritual led to the tentative adoption of other titles, e.g. the “ Open Church, ” the “ Free Church, ” the former of which is the more commonly used. In 1894 was formed the “ Open and Institutional Church League ” at New York, which helda number of conventions and served as a headquarters for the numerous separate churches. In connexion with this league was formed the “National Federation of Churches and' Christian Workers, ” which held a convention in 1905.

See C. Silvester Horne, The Institutional Church (London, 1906); G. W. Mead, Modern Methods in Church Work (New York, 1897): R. A. Woods, English Social Movements (New York, 1891)


INSTRUMENT (Lat. instrumentum, from instruere, to build up, furnish, arrange, prepare), that which can be used as a means to an end, hence a mechanical contrivance, implement or tool; the word is more particularly applied to the implements of applied science, in mathematics, surgery, surveying, &c., while those of the handicrafts are generally known as “ tools.” A specific use of the term is for the various contrivances used to produce musical sounds, “ musical instruments.”

In law an “ instrument ” is any formal or written document by which expression is given to a legal act or agreement. This is a classical use of the Lat. instrumentum, a document, record. The term may be used in a wide sense, as a mere writing meant only to form a record, or in a particular sense with reference to certain statutes. For example, the Stamp Act 1891 defines an instrument as an expression including every written document; for the purposes of the Forgery Act 1861 a post-office telegram accepting a wager has been defined as an instrument. In expressions such as “ deed, will, or other written instrument ” the word means any written document under which a right or liability, legal or equitable, exists.


INSTRUMENTATION. “ Instrumentation ” is the best term that can be found for that aspect of musical art which is concerned with timbre. The narrower term “ orchestration ” is applied to the instrumentation of orchestral music. Since the most obvious differences of timbre are in those of various instruments, the art which blends and contrasts timbre is most easily discussed as the treatment of instruments; but we must use this term with philosophic breadth and allow it to include voices. Instrumentation is in all standard text-books treated as a technical subject, from the point of view of practical students desirous of writing for the modern orchestra. And as there is no branch of art in which mechanical improvements, and the consequent change in the nature of technical difficulties, bear so directly upon the possibilities and methods of external effect, it follows that an exclusive preponderance of this view is not without serious disadvantage from the standpoint of general musical culture. There is probably no other branch of art in which orthodox tradition is so entirely divorced from the historical sense, and the history, when studied at all, so little illuminated by the permanent artistic significame of its subjects. When inprovement in the structure of an instrument remove from the modern composer's memory an entire category of limitations which in classical music determined the very character of the instrument, the temptation is easy to regard the improvement as a kind of access of wisdom, in comparison with which not only the older form of the instrument, but the part that it plays in classical music, is. crude and archaic., But we should do better justice to improvements in an instrument if we really understood how far they give it, not merely new resources, but a new nature. And, moreover, those composers who have done most to realize this new nature (as Wagner has done for the brass instruments)-have also retained, to an extent unsuspected by their imitators, the definite character which the instrument had in its earlier form..

As it is with mechanical improvements, so is it to a still greater degree with changes in the function of timbre in art. Throughout. the rgth century so fatal was the hold obtained on the popular mind by the technical expert's view of instrumentation, that it was impossible to hear the works of Handel and Bach without “ additional accompaniments ” conceived in terms of art as irrelevant to those of r8th-century polyphony's as the terms of Turnerian landscape are irrelevant to the decoration of the outside walls of a cathedral. There is some reason to hope that the day of these misconceptions is passed; although there is also some reason -to fear that on other grounds the present era may be- known to posterity as an era of instrumentation comparable, in its gorgeous chaos of experiment and its lack of consistent ideas of harmony and form, only to the rnonodic period at the beginning of the r7th century, in which no one had ears for anything' but experiments in harmonic colour. We do not propose to concern ourselves here with those technical subjects which are the chief concern of standard treatises on instrumentation. Our task is simply to furnish the general reader with an account of the types of instrumentation prevalent at various musical periods, and their relation to other branches of the art.

The Vocal Style of the 16th Century.-In the r6th century instrumentation was, in its normal modern sense, non-existent; but in a special sense it wasn’t an unsurpassable stage of' perfection, namely, in the treatment of pure vocal harmony. In every mature period of art it will be found that, however much the technical rules may be collected in one special category, every artistic category has a perfect interaction with all the art is in its simplest possible form of maturity. Practically every law of harmony in 16th-century music may be equally well- regarded as a law of vocal effect. Discords must not be taken unprepared, because a singer can only find his note by a mental judgment, and in attacking a discord he has to hnd a note of which the harmonic meaning is at variance with that of other notes sung at 'the same time. Melody must not makemore than one wide skip in the same direction, because by so doing it would cause an awkward change of vocal register. Two parts mustnot move in consecutive octaves or fifths, because by so doing they unaccountably reinforce each other by an amount by which they impoverish the rest of the harmony. Thus we justify, on grounds of instrumentation, laws usually known as laws of harmony and counterpoint. Apart from such considerations, 16th-century vocal harmony shows in the hands of its greatest masters an inexhaustible variety of refinements of vocal colour. A volume might be written on Orlando di Lasso's art'of so crossing the voices as fto' render possible successions of chords which, on 'a keyed instrument where such crossing cannot be expressed, would be a horrible series of consecutive fifths; the- beauty of the device consisting in the extreme simplicity of the chords, combined with the novelty due to the fact that these chords cannot be produced by any ordinary means without incorrectness. i ' ~ — Decorative

Instrumentat/i0n.-In the 17th century the use of instruments became a necessity; but there were at first no organized ideas for their treatment except those which were grounded on their use as supporting and imitating the voice.