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things are at bottom the same, or interaction would be impossible

(πάντα τὰ ἔοντα ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἑτεροιοῦσθαι καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ εἶναι). This universal substance is Air. But Diogenes went much farther than Anaximenes by attributing to air not only infinity and eternity but also intelligence. This Intelligence alone would have produced the orderly arrangement which we observe in Nature, and is the basis

of human thought by the physical process of inhalation.
Another pupil of Anaxagoras was Archelaus of Miletus (q.v.).

His work was mainly the combination of previous views, except that he is said to have introduced an ethical side into the Ionian philosophy. “Justice and injustice,” he said, “are not natural but legal.” He endeavoured to overcome the dualism of Anaxagoras, and

in so doing approached more nearly to the older Ionians.
The last of the Ionians whom we need mention is Hippo (q.v.),

who, like Archelaus, is intellectually amongst the earlier members of the school. He thought that the source of all things was moisture (τὸ ὑγρόν), and is by Aristotle coupled with Thales (Metaphysics,

A 3).
Bibliography.—Ritter and Preller, ch. i.; Zeller’s History of

Greek Philosophy; J. Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy (1892); Fairbanks, The First Philosophers of Greece (1898); Grote, History of Greece, ch. viii.; Windelband, History of Ancient Philosophy (1899); Benn, The Greek Philosophers (1883) and The Philosophy of Greece (1898); Th. Gomperz, Greek Thinkers (Eng. trans. vol. i., L.

Magnus, 1901).

IOPHON, Greek tragic poet, son of Sophocles. He gained the second prize in 428 B.C., Euripides being first, and Ion third. He must have been living in 405, the date of the production of the Frogs of Aristophanes, in which he is spoken of as the only good Athenian tragic poet, although it is hinted that he owed much to his father’s assistance. He wrote 50 plays, of which only a few fragments remain. It is said that Iophon accused his father before the court of the phratores of being incapable of managing his affairs, to which Sophocles replied by reading the famous chorus of the Oedipus at Colonus (688 ff.), with the result that he was triumphantly acquitted.

See Aristophanes, Frogs, 73, 78, with scholia; Cicero, De senectute,

vii. 22; Plutarch, Moralia, 785 B; A. Nauck, Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta (1889); O. Wolff, De Iophonte poëta (Leipzig,


I.O.U. (“I owe you”), a written acknowledgment of a debt. It usually runs thus:

To——. I.O.U. —— pounds.

(Signed) ——. Date——.

An I.O.U., if worded as above, or even if the words “for value received” are added, does not acquire a stamp, as it contains no terms of agreement. If any such words as “to be paid on such a day” are added, it requires a stamp. An I.O.U. should be addressed to the creditor by name, though its validity is not impaired by such omission. Being a distinct admission of a sum due, it is prima facie evidence of an account stated, but where it is the only item of evidence of account it may be rebutted by showing there was no debt and no demand which could be enforced by virtue of it. An I.O.U. is not negotiable.

IOVILAE, or Jovilae, a latinized form of iůvilas, the name given by the Oscan-speaking Campanians in the 5th, 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. to an interesting class of monuments, not yet fully understood. They all bear crests or heraldic emblems proper to some family or group of families, and inscriptions directing the annual performance of certain ceremonies on fixed days. While some of them are dedicated to Jupiter (in a special capacity, which our present knowledge of Oscan is insufficient to determine), others were certainly found attached to graves.

See the articles Osca Lingua, Capua, Cumae and Messapii.

The text of all those yet discovered (at Capua and Cumae), with particulars of similar usages elsewhere in Italy and other historical and archaeological detail, is given by R. S. Conway in The Italic Dialects (Cambridge, 1897, pp. 101 ff.). A briefer but valuable discussion of the chief characteristics of the group will be found in R. von Planta’s Oskisch-umbrische Grammatik, ii. 631 ff., and a summary description in C. D. Buck’s Osco-Umbrian Grammar,

247.  (R. S. C.) 

IOWA, a north central state of the United States, situated between latitudes 40° 36′ and 43° 30′ N. and between longitudes 89° 5′ and 96° 31′ W. It is bounded N. by Minnesota, E. by the Mississippi river, which separates it from Wisconsin and Illinois, S. by Missouri, and W. by the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers, which separate it from Nebraska and South Dakota. Its total area is 56,147 sq. m., of which 561 sq. m. are water surface.

Physical Features.—Topographically, Iowa lies wholly in the Prairie

Plains Region, part of it having been overrun by the Great Ice Sheet of the Glacial epoch. For the most part the surface is that of a prairie tableland, moderately rolling, and with a general but scarcely perceptible slope, which in the eastern two-thirds is from N.W. to S.E., and in the western third from N.E. to S.W. Elevations above the sea range from between 1200 to 1675 ft. in the N.W. to 500 ft. and less in the S.E., the highest point being in the vicinity of Spirit lake in Dickinson county, the lowest at Keokuk. In the southern half of the state the height of the crests of the divides is very uniform. The northern half is more broken and irregular; elevations, usually rounded, mingle with depressions some of which are occupied by small shallow lakes or ponds, the characteristic physical features of this region being due to glaciation. But the most marked departures from the prairie surface are in the N.E. and S.W. In the N.E. the whole of Allamakee and parts of Winneshick, Fayette, Clayton, Delaware, Dubuque and Jackson counties form the only driftless area of the state; in that section cliffs frequently rise almost vertically from the banks of a river to a height of from 300 to 400 ft., and from the summit of the cliff to the crest of the divide, a few miles distant, there is another ascent of 300 ft. or more terminating occasionally in knob-topped hills crowned in many instances with small cedar. Moreover, the largest streams have numerous tributaries, and nearly all alike flow circuitously between steep if not vertical cliffs or in deep craggy ravines overlooked by distant hills, among which the wagon road has wound its way with difficulty. In the W., S. from the mouth of the Big Sioux river, extends a line of mound-like bluffs usually free from rocks, but rising abruptly from the flood plain of the Missouri to a height varying from 100 to 300 ft. A broad water-parting extending from Spirit lake, on the northern border, nearly S. to within 60 m. of the southern border, and thence S.E. to Wayne county in the south central part of Iowa, divides the state into two drainage systems. That to the E., comprising about two-thirds of the whole area, is drained by tributaries of the Mississippi, of which the Des Moines, the Skunk, the Iowa with its tributary the Cedar, and the Wapsipinicon are the largest, streams of long courses and easy fall over beds frequently pebbly in the N. but muddy in the S., and through valleys broad at their sources, well drained, and gently sloping in the middle of their courses, but becoming narrower and deeper towards their mouths; that to the W. is drained by tributaries of the Missouri, mostly short streams taking their rise from numerous rivulets, flowing quite rapidly over muddy beds through much of their courses, and in the bluff belt along the Missouri having steep but grassy banks 200 ft. in height or more. (For geological details, see United States,

section Geology, ad fin.)
Flora and Fauna.—The predominant feature of the flora is the

grasses of the prairie. The former forests of the state were of two general classes: on the bottom lands along the rivers grew cottonwood, willow, honey-locust, coffee trees, black ash, and elm; on the less heavily wooded uplands were oaks (white, red, yellow and bur), hickory (bitternut and pignut), white and green ash, butternut, ironwood and hackberry. The growth was heavier, however, in the E. than in the W., but, it has been estimated, covered in all about one-fifth of the area of the state at the time of its first settlement by the whites. In the N.E., also, small cedar and pine are found. But everywhere now most of the merchantable timber has been cut; in 1900 it was estimated that there were altogether about 7000, sq. m. of woodland in the state. The bison and elk long ago disappeared; black bear and deer were long found in unsettled parts of the state. Ducks, geese and other water birds are common, especially during their migrations.

Climate.—The climate is one of great extremes of heat and cold, with a dry winter and a usually wet summer, the prevailing wind of winter being N.W. while in summer it not infrequently blows from the S.W. Both the midwinter isotherm of Montreal and the midsummer one of Washington, D.C., pass through the state. The mean annual temperature is 47.5° F.; the average range of extremes per year during the decade ending with 1900 was 136° F., while the greatest extremes recorded are from −43° F. in 1888 to 113° F. in 1901, a difference of 156° F. From 1893 to 1898 the average mean annual temperature at Cresco in Howard county, near the N.E. corner of the state, was 44.3° F., while at Keokuk in the S.E. corner it was 52.2° F., and as the isotherms cross the state, especially in the N., their tendency is to move S.W. The rainfall is also very unequal in distribution throughout the year, as also between the same periods of different years, and as between the different parts of the state. For while the mean annual precipitation is 31.42 in., 22.48 in., or 71% of this, fall during the six months from the 1st of April to the 1st of October, or 10% in winter, 23% in autumn, 28% in spring and 39% in summer, June and July being the two wettest months. At the same time extremes during the four most critical crop months, from the 1st of May to the 1st of September, have ranged from 6.75 in. in 1894 to 27.8 in. in 1902. Within any one year the precipitation is in general usually less in the western part of the state than in the eastern, the mean difference for all the years of record up to the close

of 1903 being 2.5 in.; the western part also is marked by having a