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more radical seeking the promotion of what since 1902 has been known as the “Iowa Idea,” which in substance is to further the expansion of the trade of the United States with the rest of the world through the more extended application of tariff reciprocity, and at the same time to revise the tariff so as to prevent it from “affording a shelter to monopoly.”

Governors of Iowa
Robert Lucas Democrat 1838-1841
John Chambers Whig 1841-1845
James Clark Democrat 1845-1846
Ansel Briggs Democrat 1846-1850
Stephen Hempstead    ” 1850-1854
James Wilson Grimes Whig and Free-Soil Democrat  1854-1858
Ralph P. Lowe Republican 1858-1860
Samuel Jordan Kirkwood    ” 1860-1864
William Milo Stone    ” 1864-1868
Samuel Merrill    ” 1868-1872
Cyrus Clay Carpenter    ” 1872-1876
Samuel Jordan Kirkwood    ” 1876-1877
Joshua Giddings Newbold[1]     ” 1877-1878
John Henry Gear    ” 1878-1882
Buren Robinson Sherman    ” 1882-1886
William Larrabee    ” 1886-1890
Horace Boies Democrat 1890-1894
Frank Darr Jackson Republican 1894-1896
Francis Marion Drake    ” 1896-1898
Leslie Mortier Shaw    ” 1898-1902
Albert Baird Cummins    ” 1902-1909
B. F. Carroll    ” 1909-

Bibliography.Publications of the Iowa Geological Survey (Des Moines, 1868); Iowa Weather and Crop Service (Des Moines, 1889); U.S. Census; F. H. Dixon, State Railroad Control, with a History of its Development in Iowa (New York, 1896), a detailed history of the control of Iowa railways through the commission system; B. F. Shambaugh, History of the Constitution of Iowa (Des Moines, 1902); Jesse Macy, Institutional Beginnings in a Western State in Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science (Baltimore, 1894); H. M. Bowman, The Administration of Iowa, a Study in Centralization (New York, 1903), an able presentation of the present administrative system in the light of its historical development; William Salter, Iowa, the first Free State in the Louisiana Purchase (Chicago, 1905); B. F. Shambaugh, Documentary Material relating to the History of Iowa (Iowa City, 1897), and The Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa (Iowa City, 1903-1904); Annals of Iowa, 3 series: Series 1, The Annals of the State Historical Society of Iowa (Iowa City and Davenport, 1863-1874); Series 2, vol. i, The Annals of Iowa; vol. ii., Howe’s Annals of Iowa (Iowa City, 1882-1884); Series 3, The Annals of Iowa, published by the Historical Department of Iowa (Des Moines, 1893-  ); Iowa Historical Record (Iowa City, 1885-1902); Iowa Journal of History and Politics (Iowa City, 1903 seq.); and G. T. Flom, Chapters on Scandinavian Immigration to Iowa (Iowa City, 1907).

IOWA CITY, a city and the county-seat of Johnson county, Iowa, U.S.A., on Iowa river, about 120 m. E. of Des Moines. Pop. (1890) 7016; (1900) 7987, of whom 1355 were foreign born; (1905) 8497; (1910) 10,091. It is served by two branches of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railroad, and by the Iowa City & Cedar Rapids Interurban railway (electric), of which it is a terminus. The ground on which the city is built forms an amphitheatre surrounded for the most part by hills and bluffs. Iowa City is the seat of the state university of Iowa, of Iowa City Academy, of the library of the State Historical Society and of the state Sanatorium for the Treatment of Tuberculosis. The university, organized in 1847, and occupying the old State Capitol grounds, is an integral part of the public school system of the state, and is under the control of a board of regents, consisting of the governor, the superintendent of public instruction and eleven members, elected—one from each congressional district—by the General Assembly. The university’s preparatory department was opened in 1855 and continued until 1879; the first collegiate session was in 1856-1857, but during 1858-1860 the collegiate department was closed. The institution embraces a college of liberal arts (1860), with a school of political and social science (1900)—which offers courses in commerce, administration, modern history and practical philanthropy—and a school of education, first opened in 1907, to train secondary and college teachers and school principals and superintendents; a college of law (1868); a college of medicine (1870), including a training school for nurses (1897); a college of homoeopathic medicine (1877), including a nurses’ training school (1894); a college of dentistry (1882); a college of pharmacy (1885); a graduate college; a college of applied science (1903), with courses in civil, electrical, mechanical, mining, municipal and sanitary engineering and courses in chemistry; a summer school for teachers and librarians and a university extension department. Affiliated with the university is a school of music. The university’s income is derived from the proceeds of invested funds and lands originally given by the United States, from permanent appropriations by the state and from the proceeds of a one-fifth mill tax to be used for buildings alone. In 1907-1908 the institution had 28 buildings (including the old State Capitol, built in 1840), a teaching and administrative force of nearly 200 members and 2315 students, of whom 1082 were in the college of liberal arts; the university library had about 65,000 volumes (25,000 were destroyed by fire in 1897), and the university law library, 14,000 volumes; and the total income of the university was about $611,000. In 1908 the library of the State Historical Society of Iowa, housed in the Hall of the Liberal Arts of the university, numbered about 40,000 volumes. Iowa City has a considerable variety of small manufacturing establishments. In 1839 Iowa City was selected as the site for the seat of government of the newly created Territory of Iowa. The legislature met for the first time in 1841 and continued to hold its sessions here until 1857, when Des Moines, on account of its more central position, was made the capital.

IPECACUANHA.[2] The root used in medicine under this name is obtained from Psychotria (or Uragoga) Ipecacuanha, a small shrubby plant of the natural order Rubiaceae. It is a native of Brazil, growing in clumps or patches in moist shady forests from 8° to 22° S., and is also found in New Granada and probably in Bolivia. The drug of commerce is procured chiefly from the region lying between the towns of Cuyaba, Villa Bella, Villa Maria and Diamantina in the province of Matto Grosso, and near the German colony of Philadelphia, north of Rio Janeiro. Ipecacuanha, although in common use in Brazil, was not employed in Europe previous to 1672. In France within a few years after that date it formed the chief ingredient in a remedy for dysentery, the secret of the composition of which was purchased by the French Government for 1000 louis d’or, and made public in 1688. The botanical source of ipecacuanha was not accurately known until 1800. The root appears to be possessed of very great vitality, for in 1869 M’Nab, of the Botanical Gardens of Edinburgh, discovered that so small a portion as 116 of an inch of the annulated root, placed in suitable soil, would throw out a leaf-bud and develop into a fresh plant, while Lindsay, a gardener in the same establishment, proved that even the leaf-stalk is capable of producing roots and buds; hence there is but little probability of the plant being destroyed in its native habitat. The great value of the drug in dysentery, and its rapid increase in price from an average of 2s. 9½d. per ℔ in 1850 to about 8s. 9d. per ℔ in 1870, led to attempts to acclimatize the plant in India, which, however, have not hitherto proved to be a commercial success, owing to the difficulty of finding suitable spots for its cultivation, and to its slowness of growth. Like other dimorphic plants, ipecacuanha ripens seeds best when cross-fertilized, and presents various forms. Two of these were described by the late Professor F. M. Balfour of Edinburgh, one distinguished by having a woody stem, firm elliptic or oval leaves, with wavy margins and few hairs, and the other by an herbaceous stem, and leaves less coriaceous in texture, more hairy and not wavy at the margins. This diversity of form is most apparent in young plants, and tends to disappear with age.

  1. As lieutenant-governor, Newbold serves for the unexpired portion of the term to which Kirkwood was elected; Kirkwood resigned on the 1st of February 1877, having been chosen United States senator.
  2. The name is the Portuguese form of the native word i-pe-kaa-guéne, which is said to mean “road-side sick-making plant” (Skeat, Etym. Dict. 1898).