Open main menu
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
738
IPHIGENEIA—IPSWICH

against Cotys, with whom, however, he subsequently concluded an alliance. About 378 he was sent with a force of mercenaries to assist the Persians to reconquer Egypt; but a dispute with Pharnabazus led to the failure of the expedition (Diod. Sic. xv. 29–43). On his return to Athens he commanded an expedition in 373 for the relief of Corcyra, which was besieged by the Lacedaemonians (Xenophon, Hellenica, vi. 2). On the peace of 371, Iphicrates returned to Thrace, and somewhat tarnished his fame by siding with his father-in-law Cotys in a war against Athens for the possession of the entire Chersonese. The Athenians, however, soon pardoned him and gave him a joint command in the Social War. He and two of his colleagues were impeached by Chares, the fourth commander, because they had refused to give battle during a violent storm. Iphicrates was acquitted but sentenced to pay a heavy fine. He afterwards remained at Athens (according to some he retired to Thrace) till his death (about 353).

There is a short sketch of his life by Cornelius Nepos; see also C. Rehdantz, Vitae Iphicratis, Chabriae et Timothei (1854); Bauer, Griech. Kriegsaltert. in Müller’s Handbuch, 4, § 49; and histories of Greece, e.g. Holm, Eng. trans., vol. iii.


IPHIGENEIA, or Iphianassa, in Greek legend, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaem(n)estra. Agamemnon had offended Artemis, who prevented the Greek fleet from sailing for Troy, and, according to the soothsayer Calchas, could be appeased only by the sacrifice of Agamemnon’s daughter. According to some accounts the sacrifice was completed, according to others Artemis carried away the maiden to be her priestess in the Tauric Chersonese [Crimea] and substituted for her a hind. In this new country it was her duty to sacrifice to the goddess all strangers; and as her brother Orestes came to search for her and to carry off to Attica the image of the goddess, she was about to sacrifice him, when a happy recognition took place. These legends show how closely the heroine is associated with the cult of Artemis, and with the human sacrifices which accompanied it in older times before the Hellenic spirit had modified the barbarism of this borrowed religion. Orestes and Iphigeneia fled, taking with them the image; at Delphi they met Electra, the sister of Orestes, who having heard that her brother had been sacrificed by the Tauric priestess, was about to tear out the eyes of Iphigeneia. The brother and sister returned to Mycenae; Iphigeneia deposited the image in the deme of Brauron in Attica, where she remained as priestess of Artemis Brauronia. Attica being one of the chief seats of the worship of Artemis, this explains why Iphigeneia is sometimes called a daughter of Theseus and Helen, and thereby connected with the national hero. The grave of Iphigeneia was shown at Brauron and Megara. According to other versions of the legend, when saved from sacrifice Iphigeneia was transported to the island of Leuke, where she was wedded to Achilles under the name of Orsilochia (Antoninus Liberalis 27); or she was transformed by Artemis into the goddess Hecate (Pausanias i. 43. 1). According to the Spartans, the image of Artemis was transported by Orestes and Iphigeneia to Laconia, where the goddess was worshipped as Artemis Orthia, the human sacrifices originally offered to her being abolished by Lycurgus and replaced by the flogging of youths (diamastigosis, Pausan. iii. 16). At Hermione, Artemis was worshipped under the name of Iphigeneia, thus showing the heroine in the last resort to be a form of that goddess (Pausanias ii. 35. 1). Originally, Iphigeneia, the “mighty born,” is probably merely an epithet of Artemis, in which the notion of a priestess of the goddess had its origin. Iphigeneia is a favourite subject in Greek literature. She is the heroine of two plays of Euripides, and of many other tragedies which have been lost (see also Pindar, Pythia xi. 23; Ovid, Metam. xii. 27). In ancient vase paintings she is frequently met with; and the picture by Timanthes representing Agamemnon hiding his face at her sacrifice was one of the famous works of antiquity (Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxv. 10).

See M. Jacobson, De fabulis ad Iphigeniam pertinentibus (1888); R. Förster, Iphigenie (1898); H. W. Stoll in Roscher’s Lexikon der Mythologie; and P. Decharme in Daremberg and Saglio’s Dictionnaire des antiquités.


IPSWICH, a town of Stanley county, Queensland, Australia, on the river Bremer, 231/2 m. by rail W. by S. of Brisbane. Pop. (1901), 8637. It is the centre of a rich and populous agricultural mining and manufacturing district. Coal is worked on the banks of the river with but little labour, as it crops out on the surface. There are a woollen factory, several saw-mills, and foundries and large railway workshops at North Ipswich. The first settlement was made here in 1829; the town was incorporated in 1860.


IPSWICH, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough and county town of Suffolk, England, 69 m. N.E. by E. from London by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1901), 66,630. It stands on a gentle ascent above the left bank of the river Gipping, which here widens into the tidal estuary of the Orwell. This land-locked inlet extends 11 m. S.E. to Harwich and Felixstowe at opposite sides of its mouth, near which the wider Stour estuary unites with it. Its banks are gently undulating, well wooded and picturesque. In the lower and older portion of Ipswich, with its irregular streets, are some few antiquarian remains. Sparrowe’s house (1567), named from a family which occupied it for some two centuries, is well preserved and has ornate gabled fronts to two streets. Archdeacon’s Place (1471) is another still earlier example. Wolsey’s Gateway (1528), a Tudor brick building, is the only remnant of the Cardinal’s foundation to supply scholars to his great college (Cardinal’s College, now Christ Church) at Oxford. The older churches are all towered flint-work structures, wholly or mainly Perpendicular in style, with the exception of St Peter’s, which is principally Decorated, with a Norman font of marble. They include St Margaret’s with a beautiful oak Tudor roof, elaborately painted temp. William and Mary; St Mary-at-Key (or Quay), with a similar roof; St Lawrence; and St Clement’s. The most noteworthy modern churches are St Michael’s (1880), All Saints’ (1892), St John the Baptist’s (1899) and St Bartholomew’s (1901). The Roman Catholic church of St Pancras (1863), a late First Pointed edifice, has a richly carved reredos and a lofty flèche. Among public buildings, the town hall (1868) is an imposing structure in Venetian style, with clock tower; forming part of a fine group including the corn exchange (1881) and post office (1880). The museum, including an art gallery, contains archaeological and ornithological collections, and a noteworthy series of Red Crag fossils. It was founded in 1847, and moved to new buildings in 1881. The East Suffolk hospital was founded in 1836. In the theatre David Garrick made his first important and regular appearance in 1741. The grammar school, dating at latest from 1477, was refounded by Queen Elizabeth in 1565, and is housed in buildings in Tudor style (1851). There are borough science, art and technical schools, with a picture gallery in the fine Tudor mansion (1549) in Christchurch Park. There are also a middle school for boys, a high school and an endowed school for girls, a scientific society, corporation library and small medical library. Of two beautiful arboretums the upper is public; part of Christchurch Park adjacent to this is owned by the corporation; there are also recreation grounds and a race-course. Industries include large engineering and agricultural implement works, railway plant works, the making of artificial manures, boots and shoes, clothing, bricks and tobacco and malting. The port has a dock of nearly 30 acres, accommodating vessels drawing 19 ft. and a large extent of quayage. Imports are principally grain, timber and coal; exports agricultural machinery, railway plant, artificial manures, oil cake, &c. Ipswich is a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Norwich. The parliamentary borough returns two members. The corporation consists of a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors. Area, 8112 acres.

A Roman villa has been discovered here. But the Saxon settlement at the head of the Orwell was doubtless the first of any importance. In 991 the town (Gipeswic, Gipeswich) was sacked by vikings. It owes its subsequent prosperity to its situation on a harbour admirably suited for trade with the Continent. The townsmen had acquired the privileges of burgesses by 1086 when Roger Bigot kept the borough in the