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For immediate use, while C receives those to be stored for winter use. F rom A and B the materials are drawn as they are needed into large buckets D standing on cars, which carr them to the foot ot the hoist track EE, up which they are hoistedyto the top of the furnace. Arr1ved here, the material is introduced into the furnace by an ingenious piece of mechanism which completely prevents the furnace gas from escaping into the air. The hoist-engineer in the house F at the foot of the furnace, when informed by means of an indicator that the bucket has arrived at the top, lowers it so that its flanges GG (fig. 7) rest on the corresponding fixed fianges HH, as the string of moulds, each thus containing a pig, moves slowly forward, the pigs solidify and cool, the more quickly because in transit they are sprayed with water or even submerged in Nrézfé KWH ge

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shown in fig. 9. The farther descent of the bucket being thus fl 'gig arrested. the special cable T is now slackened, so that the conical fi Q, bottom of the bucket drops down, pressing down by its weight the It/' g pfgl § fi Casting House

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FIG. 12.— Diagram of the Carnegie Blast-Furnace Plant at Duquesne, Pa. A and B, Bins for stock for immediate use. F, Hoist»engine house. N, N, N, Ladles carrying the molten C, Receiving bin for winter stock pile. LL, Travelling crane commanding stock pile. cast iron to the works, where D, D, Ore bucket. M, Ore bucket receiving ore for stock pile. it is converted into steel by the EE, Hoist-track. M', Bucket removing ore from stock pile. open hearth process. counter-weighted false cover I of the furnace, so that the contents of the bucket slide down into the space between this false cover and the true charging bell, K. The special cable T is now tightened again, and lifts the bottom of the bucket so as both to close it and to close the space between ] and K, by allowing j to rise back to its initial place. The bucket then descends along the hoist-track to make way for the next succeeding one, and K is lowered, dropping the charge into the furnace. Thus some X700 tons of materials are charged daily into each of these furnaces without being shovelled at all, running by gravity from bin to, bucket and from bucket to furnace, and being hoisted and charged into the furnace by a single engineer below, without any assistance or supervision at the furnace top. The winter stock of materials is drawn from the left-hand row of bins, and distributed over immense stock piles by means of the Wrought Iron and Steel.-The

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water in the tank EE. Arrived at the farther sheave C, the now cool pigs are dumped into a railway car. Besides a great saving of labour, only partly offset by the cost of repairs, these machines have the great merit of making the management independent of a very troublesome set of labourers, the hand pig-breakers, who were not only absolutely indispensable for every cast and every day, because the pig iron must be removed promptly to make way for the next succeeding cast of iron, but very difficult to replace because of the great

physical endurance which their

work requires.

7 5. Direct Processes for making


FIG. 13.-Diagram of Pig-Casting Machine. A, Ladle bringing the cast iron from the blast-furnace. BB, The moulds.

C, D, Sheaves carrying the endless chain of moulds. great crane LL (Fig. 12), which transfers it as it is needed to the row A of bins, whence it is carried to the furnace, as already explained. 74. Casting the Molten Pig Iron:-The molten pig iron at many works is still run directly from the furnace into sand or iron moulds arranged in a way which suggests a nursing litter of pigs; hence the name “ pig iron.” These pigs are then usually broken by hand. The Uehling casting machine (fig. 13) has displaced this method in many works. It consists essentially of a series of thin-walled moulds, BB, carried by endless chains past the lip of a great ladle A. This pours into them the molten cast iron which it has just received directly from the blast-furnace. .~s EE, Tank in which the moulds are submerged. F, Car into which the cooled pigs are dropped. G, Distributing funnel.

present way of getting the iron of the ore into the form of wrought iron and steel by first making cast iron and then purifying it, i.e. by first putting carbon and silicon into theiron and then taking them out again at great expense, at first sight seems so unreasonably roundabout that many “ direct ” processes of extracting the iron without thus charging it with carbon and silicon have been proposed, and some of them have at times' been important. But to-day they have almost ceased to exist. That the blast-furnace process must be followed by a purifying one, that carburization must at once be undone by decarburization, is clearly a disadvantage, but it is one which is far out-weighed by

live important incidental advantages. (I) The strong deoxidizing