Open main menu
This page needs to be proofread.

flexibility thus gained outweighs the cost of the fuel used and the increased loss of iron by oxidation by the Siemens gas flame.

127. Continuous Heating Furnace.-The Gjers system is not applicable to small ingots or “ billets, ”' because they lack the inner surplus heat of large ingots; indeed, they are now allowed to cool completely. To heat these on the intermittent plan for further rolling, Le. to charge a lot of them as a whole in a heating furnace, bring them as a whole to rolling temperature, and then withdraw them as a whole for rolling, is very wasteful of heat, because it is only in the first part of the heating that the outside of the ingots is cool enough to abstract thoroughly the heat from the flame. During all the latter part of the heating, when the temperature of the ingot has approached that of the flame, only an ever smaller and smaller part of the heat of that flame can be absorbed by the ingots. Hence in the intermittent system most of the heat generated within the furnace escapes from it with the products of combustion. The continuous heating system (fig. 32) recovers this heat by bringing the flame into contact

Flo. 32.-Diagram of C. H. Morgan's Continuous Heating Furnace for 2-inch billets 30 ft. long.

The incoming air preheated by

G and by the pipes N and

brought from above G to

between N by a flue not


The incoming gas.


Hottest billet ready for roll- H, ing.

Exit door.

Pusher, for forcing billets forward. Water-cooled pipe on which J,

billets are pushed forward. L, The flame. B



Magnesite bricks on which the M,

hot billets slide forward.

F, The billet last entered. N,


E, The escaping products of combustion. Pi es throu h which the r

P g P 0

ducts of combustion pass.

The suspended roof.

with successively cooler and cooler billets, A-F, and finally with quite cold ones, of consequently great heat-absorbing capacity. As soon as a hot billet A is withdrawn by pushing it endwise out of the exit door B, the whole row is pushed forward by a set of mechanical pushers C, the billets sliding on the raised water-cooled pipes D, and, in the hotter art of the furnace, on the magnetite bricks E, on which iron slides easily when red-hot. A new cold billet is then charged at the upper end of the hearth, and the new cycle begins by pushing out through B a second billet, and so forth. To lessen the loss in shape of “ crop ends, ” and for general economy, these billets are in some cases 30 ft. long, as in the furnace shown in fig. 32. It is to make it wide enough to receive such long billets that its roof is suspended, as here shown, by two sets of iron tie-rods. As the foremost end of the billet emerges from the furnace it enters the first of a series of roll-trains, and passes immediately thence to others, so that before half of the billet has emerged from the furnace its front end has already been reduced by rolling to its final shape, that of merchant-bars, which are relatively thin, round or.square rods, in lengths of 300 ft.

In the intermittent system the waste heat can, it is true, be utilized either for raising steam (but inefhciently and inconveniently, because of the intermittency), or by a regenerative method like the Siemens, Fig. 19; but this would probably recover less heat than the continuous system, first, because it transfers the heat from flame to metal indirectly instead of directly; and, second, because the brickwork of the Siemens system is probably a poorer heat-catcher than the iron billets of the continuous system, because its disadvantages of low conductivity and low specific heat probably outweigh its advantages of roughness and porosity. 1 28. Rolling, F urging, and Drawing:-The three chief processes for shaping iron and steel, rolling, forging (i.e. hammering, pressing or stamping) and drawing, all really proceed by squeezing 1 A “billet " is a bar. 5 in. sq. or smaller, drawn down from a bloom, ingot, or pile for further manufacture. I





EEL 8.3-1

the metal into the desired shape. In forging, whether under a hammer or under a -press, the action is evidently asqueeze, however skilfully guided. In drawing, the pull of the pincers (fig. 33) upon the protruding end, F, of the rod, transmitted to the still undrawn part, E, squeezes the yielding metal of the rod against the hard unyielding die, C. Aslwhen a half-opened umbrella is thrust

ferrule-foremost between the balusters of a staircase, so when the rod is drawn forward, its yielding metal is folded and forced backwards and cent rewards by the resistance of the unyielding die, and thus it is reduced in 'diameter and simultaneously lengthened proportionally, without material change of volume or density.

129. Methods of Rolling.-Of rolling much the same is true. The rolling mill in its simplest form is a pair of cylindrical rollers, BB (ngs. 34 and 3 5) turning about their axes in opposite directions as shown by the arrows, and supported at their ends in strong frames called “ housings, ” CC (fig. 35). The skin of the object, D, wh-ich is undergoing rolling, technically called “ the piece, ” is drawn forward powerfully by the friction of the revolving rolls, and especially of that part of their surface which at any given instant is moving horizontally (HH in fig. 34), much as, the rod is drawn through the die

in fig. 33, while the vertical component of the motion of the rear

part U of the rolls' forces the

plastic metal of that part- of

“the piece ” with which they are

in contact backwards and cent rewards, reducing its area and simultaneously lengthening it proportionally,

here again as in drawing

through a die. The rolls thus

both draw the piece forward like

the pincers of a wire die, and

themselves are 'a -die which like a river ever renews or rather maintains its nxed shape and position,

though its particles themselves are moving constantly forward with “ the piece ” which is passing between them.

After the piece has been reduced in thickness by its first passage or “ pass ” between the rolls, it may be given a second reduction and then a third and so on, either by bringing the two rolls nearer together, as in case of the plain rolls BB at the left in fig. 35, or by passing the piece through an aperture, F', smaller than the first F, as in case of the grooved rolls, AA, shown at the right, or by both means jointly. If, as sketched in ng. 34, the direction in which each of the rolls turns is constant, then after the piece has passed once through the rolls to the right, it cannot undergo a second pass till it has been brought back

“f' .


FIG. 33.-Wire undergoing

Reduction in the Die.


34.-Two-high Roll'ng

M ill/ I

to its initial position at the left. But bringing it back 7'."'4 ||!|rl§ &&l|n sa *'*

Illllll .l||||um||u|lm|i».. l I I E l-~ "'lll“"l'l“"lll i'.:'::2isi FIG. 35.-Two-high Rolling Mill.

wastes power and, still worse, time, heat, and metal, because the yellow- or even white-hot piece is rapidly cooling down and oxidizing. In order to prevent this waste the direction in which the rolls move may be reversed, so that the piece may be reduced a second time in passing to the left, in which case the rolls are

usually driven by a pair of reversing engines; or the rolls may