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IRON MASK

TABLE VI.—Production of Pig Iron (in thousands of long tons). ' TABLE IX.—Production of Steel (ln thousands of long tons). vw. United states. § , §§§§ , , § f, § , 'Q;';', § 'g', ,2§ f1, The World. -: - cfueabxs-WV, Bessemer. Hearth and Mis- ' Total.

1800 825 l 4, ' <>011211¢0S-4" 1810 S4 f, »»> 2 l I

1830 165 677 1,825 1870.

1850 565 - ~ ~~ 4,750 United States 37 li 1 31 69 1865 832 4825 972 9-250 Great Britain 215 78 292“ 1870 1,665 5964 1,369 11,900 (for 1373> 7 1330 3,335 7749 2,635 17,950 The World 692“ 1890 9,203 7904 4,533 27,157

1900 l3,7§ 9 8960 8,286 33,973” 1880 1-1 -, 21”

1 1902 ' “SJ I 992% 12' 72 597 — United States 1,074 101 72 1,247 TABLE VII.-Production of Pig Iron in ow United snot on g;§ =§ a1§ ;1§ r§§ - 1,044 251 80 1-375 thousarfqs of f”f11i°"1>- ThLux'em£iurg . 608' 87” 33 ' 728 e r ,2o °

Year. Anthracite. Charcoal. B§ ?, l;§ i;23S Total. 0 ' 4 5 1890.,

1880 1614 480 1,741 3,835 United States 3,689 513 ' 75 4,277 1885 1299. 357 2,389 4,045 Great Britain 2,015 1,564 100 3,679 1 1890 2186 628 6,388 9,203 Germany and 1 1895 1271 225 7,950 9,446 Luxemburg ., 2,127 1900 1677 384 11,728 13,739 The W011d ~ - ~~ 11»902° 19077 Y 18723 Y 437 23,972 25,7731 I O0 “ Anthracite " here includes iron made with anthracite and ooke A 9 ' A .d, 6 68 8 mixed, “ Bituminous " includes iron made with coke, with raw United States C'. 1 5 53 10, IO, gg, ~ Basic 0 2 5

bituminous coal, or with both, and “ Charcoal ” in 1900 and 1907 A, d ',545 l 7 includes iron made either with charcoal alone or with charcoal mixed 7 Great Britain § B§ ;;c 3.156 149 5'05Q, with coke. Germany and » V

TABLE VIII.-Production of Wrought Iron, also that of Bloomary Iron Luxemburg - ~ - - ~ ~ - - 5,541 (in thousands of long tons). The W01ld ~ - ' 23,273 M Wr0Lght Iron. d. Bl°(;, mary gms 1 I9O7° A d - 668 V' 7 ireot rom tr e Umted States %B;;iC II, 0 1333; 1 145 23,363 Uniigcitgtates 1153 Great Britain L33 7 ' ' 7 615232 Great Britain, Germany and Acid 3811 2091 - 8 3 8 188g ThLu€}c'emEiurg Basic 7 7,0981 3,9761, 2° U' 73 1 United States 2083(1) 36 e 01' - ~, ~ ~ - ~, - - 50,375 Great Britain . ' ' ' ' " ' " ' ° ° " 395 1 Ingots only. 2 Bessemer and open hearth only. 1 Castings. United States 25180) 7 1

Great Britain 1894

899 TABLE X.-Tonnage (gross regster) of Iron and Steel Vessels built United States 3 under Survey of Lloyd's egistry (in thousands of tons). Great Britain 1202*' . 3

Uniggdogtates ' 4 1877. i 1880. 1885. 1890. 1895. 1900. 1906. Great Britain . '-123%

Wrought Iron 443 460 304 50 8 ' 14 0 U 't t te 2200

Gpxat Bfiiass 9757 3 A, , S1001 - ~ ~ 0 35 162 1079 863 1305 1492 if Y 1 Hammered products are excluded.

TABLE XI.—Production of Iron Ore (in thousands of long tons). W 1905. Y 1906. 1907. K 1

Thousands of I Thousand of I Tho sa d if Long Tons. Pe' Cent' Long Toi1s PV Cent' Lorilg T033 United States . 42,526 I 37-4 i 47,750 ' 38-6 51,721 Germany and Luxemburg 23,074 1 20~3 26,312 i 21-3 27,260 Great Britain .... 14,591 12-8 15,500 I2'5 15,732 lgpain g-9 3,399 - 75-5

tance . , -4, 4 -7

Russia 5,954 I 5-2 3,812 3-1 4,330 2 Sweden ... 4,297 3-8 4,431 ' 3-6

Austria-Hungary 3,639 -2 4,024 3-3

Other Countries 3,4573 3-0 4,297 I 3-5 . Total .. ' 113,751 100-0 123,773 100-1 ~ il

Y H l V 3 V 3 i V Y 3 3 kr ii f

I

Calculated from the productioniof pig iron


IRON MASK (mosque de fer). The identity of the “man in the iron mask ” is a famous historical mystery. The person so called was a political prisoner under Louis XIV., who died in the Bastille in 1703. To the mask itself no real importance attaches, though that feature of the story gave it a romantic 2 Approximately.

(H. M. H.)

interest; there is no historical evidence that the mask he was said always' to wear was made of anything but black velvet (velours), and it was only afterwards that legend converted its

material into iron. As 'regards the “ man, " we have the contemporary official journals of Etienne du Iunca (d. 1706), the