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889
ITALIAN LANGUAGE


final s. [In this connexion should also be mentioned the Franco-Provengal colonies of Transalpine origin, F aeto and Celle, in Apulia (v. Morosi, Archivio glottologica, xii. 33-75), the linguistic relations of which are clearly shown by such examples as talU, Ital. tagliare; bony, Ital. bagnare; side by side with éantd., Ital. cantare; lad, Ital. levare.]

(b) Provengal (see La Lettura i. 716-717, Romanische Forschungen xxiii. 525-539).-Farther south, but still in the same western extremity of Piedmont, phenomena continuous with those of the Maritime Alps supply the means of passing from the Franco-Provengal to the Provencal proper, precisely as the same transition takes place beyond the Cottian Alps in Dauphiné almost in the same latitude. On the Italian side of the Cottian and the Maritime Alps the Franco-Provencal and the Provencal are connected with each other by the continuity of the phenomenon 6 (a pure explosive) from the Latin c before a. At OULX (sources of the Dora Riparia), which seems, however, to have a rather mixed dialect, there also occurs the important Franco-Provencal phenomenon of the surd inter dental (English th in thief) instead of the surd sibilant (for example ithi=F r. ici). At the same time agi2=avuto, takes us to the Provengal. [lf, in addition to the Provencal characteristic of which agii is an example, we consider those characteristics also Provencal, such as the o for a final unaccented, the reservation of the Latin diphthong au, p between vowels preserved) as b, we shall find that they occur, together or separately, in all the Alpine varieties of Piedmont, from the upper valleys of the Dora Riparia and Clusone to the Colle di Tenda. Thus at FENESTRELLE (upper valley of the Clusone): agii, vengu, Ital. venuto; pauc, Lat. paucu, Ital. poco; aribri (Lat. ripa), Ital. arrivare; trubd, Ital. trovare; ciabrin, Ital. capretto: at OULX (source of the Dora Riparia): agu, vengu; uno gran famino é venuo, Ital. una gran fame é venuta; at GIAGLIONE: auuou, Ital. odo (Lat. audio); arribd, resebii, Ital. ricevuto (Lat. recipere); at ONc1No (source of the Po): agii, vengu; era en campagno, Ital. “ era in campagna ”; donaivo, Ital. dava; paure, Lat. pauper, Ital. povero; trubzi, ciabri; at SANPEYRE (valley of the Varaita): agu, volgzl, Ital. voluto; pressioso, Ital. preziosa; fasio, Ital. faceva; trobar; at ACCEGL10 (valley of the Macra): venghess, Ital. venisse; virro, Ital. ghiera; chestn allegrio, Ital. questa allegria; ero, Ital. era; trobd; at CASTELMAGNO (valley of the Grana): git, vengii; rabbio, Ital. rabbia; lrubar; at VINADIO (valley of the southern Stura); agu, I/eigu, Ital. bevuto; cadéno, Ital. catena; mango, Ital. manica; canto, Ital. canta; pau, auvi, Ital. udito; fabé, Ital. sapete; trobar; at VALDIERI and RoAscH1A (valley of the Gesso): purgii, Ital. potuto; pjagii, Ital. iaciuto; corrogii, Ital. corso; pau; arriba, ciabri; at LIMONE (Ci)olle di Tenda): agu, vengfl; saber, Ital. sapere; arilbzi, trubava. Provencal also, though of a character rather Transalpine (like that of Dauphmé) than native, are the dialects of the Vaudois population above Pinerolo (11. Morosi, Arch. glott. xi. 309-416), and their colonies of Guardia in Calabria (ib. xi. 38I'393) and of Neu-Hengstett and Pinache-Serres in Württemberg (ib. xi. 393-398). The Vaudois literary language, in which is written the Nobla Leyczon, has, however, no direct connexion with any of the spoken dialects; it is a literally language, and is connected with literary Provengal, the language o the troubadours; see W. Foerster, Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen (1888) Nos. 20-2I.]

2. Ladin Dialects (Ascoli, Arch. glott. i., iv. 342 sqq., vii. 406 sqq.; Gartner, Ratoromanische Grammatik (Heilbronn, 1883), and in Grundriss der romanischen Philologie, 2nd ed., i. 608 sqq.; Salvioni, Arch. glott. xvi. 219 sqq.).-The purest of the Ladin dialects occur on the northern versant of the Alps in the Grisons (Switzerland), and they form the western section of the system. To this section also belongs both politically and in the matter of dialect the valley of Munster (Monastero); it sends its waters to the Adige, and might indeed consequently be geographically considered Italian, but it slopes towards the north. In the central section of the Ladin zone there are two other valleys which likewise drain into tributaries of the Adige, but are also turned towards the north, -the valleys of the Gardena and Gadera, in which occurs the purest Ladin now extant in the central section. The valleys of Münster, the Gardena and the Gadera may thus be regarded as inter-Alpine, and the question may be left open whether or not the should be included even geographically in Italy. There remain, however, within what are strictly Italian limits, the valleys of the Noce, the Avisio, the Cordevole, and the Boite, and the upper basin of the Piave (Comelico), in which are preserved Ladin dialects, more or less pure, belonging to the central section of the Ladin zone or belt. To Italy belongs, further, the whole eastern section of the zone composed of the Friulian territories. It is by far the most populous, containing about 500,000 inhabitants. The Friulian region is bounded on the north by the Carnic Alps, south by the Adriatic, and west by the eastern rim of the upper basin of the Piave and the Livenza; while on the east it stretches into the eastern versant of the basin of the Isonzo, and, further the ancient dialect of Trieste was itself Ladin (Arch. glott. x. 447 et seq.). The Ladin element is further found in greater or less degree throughout an altogether Cis-Alpine “ amphizone, " which begins at the western slopes of Monte Rosa, and is to be noticed more particularly in the upper valley of the Ticino and the upper valley of the Liro and of the Mera on the Lombardy versant, and in the Val Fiorentina and central Cadore on the Venetian versant. The Ladin element is clearly observable in the most ancient examples of the dialects of the Venetian estuary (Arch. i. 448-473). -The main characteristics by which the Ladin type is determined may be summarized as follows: (1) the guttural of the formulae c-l-a and g-I-a passes into a palatal; (2) the l of the formulae pl, cl, &c., is preserved; (3) the s of the ancient terminations is preserved; (4) the accented e in position breaks into a diphthong; (5) the accented o in position breaks into a diphthong; (6) the form of the diphthong which comes from short accented o or from the o of position is ue (whence ite, o); (7) long accented e and short accented i break into a diphthong, the purest form of which is sounded ei; (8) the accented a tends, within certain limits, to change into e, especially if preceded by a palatal sound; (9) the long accented u is represented by These characteristics are all foreign to true and genuine Italian. Cdrn, carne; spelunéa, spelunca; clefs, claves; fuormas, formae; infiern, infernu; iirdi, hordeu; mod, modu; plain, plenu; pail, pilu; quael, quale; pur, puru-may be taken as examples from the Upper Engadine (western section of the zone). The following are examples from the central and eastern sections on the Italian versant:-

a. Central Section.-BASIN OF THE NOCE: examples of the dialect of Fondo: éaoél, capillu; peséadiir, pis cat ore; pluévia, pluvia (plovia); pluma (dial. of Val de Rumor plooia, pliimo); vécla, vetula; écintes, cantas. The dialects of this basin are disappearing.-BASIN or THE Avrsroz examples of the dialect of the Val di Fassa: éarn, carne; éééer, cadere (cad-jere); vdéa, vacca; féréa, furca; glééia, (gééia), ecclesia; oegUe (oeje), oculi; cans, canes; rzimes, rami; teila, tela; néif, nive; coessa, coxa. The dialects of this basin which are farther West than Fassa are gradually being merged in the Veneto-Tridentine dialects.-BASIN or THE CoRnEvoLE: here the district of Livinal-Lungo (Buchenstein) is Austrian politically, and that of Rocca d'Agordo and Laste is Italian. Examples of the dialect of Livinal-Lungo: cfarié, Ital. caricare; éanté, cantatus; tigle, oculu; éans, canes; éaoéis, capilli; viérm, verme; fiiéc, focu; avéi, habere; néi, nive.-BASIN or THE BOITE: here the district of Ampezzo (Heiden) is politically Austrian, that of Oltrechiusa Italian. Examples of the dialect of Ampezzo are éas a, casa; rfandéra, candela; férées, furcae, pl.; séntes, sentis. It is a decadent form.-UPPER BASIN or THE P1AvE: dialect of the Comelico: éésa, casa; fen (can), cane; éallé, caligariu; bas, boves;noe'z1o, novu; loego, ocu.

b. Eastern Section or Friulian Region.-Here there still exists a flourishing "Ladinity, " but at the same time it tends towards Italian, particularly in the want both of the e from fi and of the ii (and consequently of the 6). Examples of the Udine variety: éarr, carro; éaval, caballu; éastiél, castellu; force, furm.: clar, claru; glac, glacie; plan, planu; colors, colores; lungs, longi, pl.; dévis, debes; vidiél, vitello; jiésle, festa; puéss, possum; cuett, coctu; uzirdi, hordeu.-The most. ancient specimens of the F riulian dialect belong to the I4th century (see Arch. iv. 188 sqq.). B. Dialects which are detached from the true and proper Italian system, but form no integral part of any foreign Neo-Latin system. I. Here first of all is the extensive system of the dialects usually called Gallo-Italian, although that designation cannot be considered sufficiently distinctive, since it would be equally applicable to the Franco-Provengal (A. 1) and the Ladin (A. 2). The system is subdivided into four great grou s-(a) the Ligurian, (b) the Piedmontese, (c) the Lombard and (d) the Emilian-the name furnishing on the whole sufficient indication of the localization and limits.-These groups, considered more particularly in their more pronounced varieties, differ greatly from each other; and, in regard to the Ligurian, it was even denied that it belongs to this system at all (see Arch. ii. III sqq.).—Characteristic of the Piedmontese, the Lombard and the Emilian is the continual elision of the unaccented final vowels except a (e. Turinese aj, oculu; Milanese vgg, voce; Bolognese vid, Ital. vitei, but the Ligurian does not keep them company (e.g. Genoese bggu, oculu; vgée, Voce). In the Piedmontese and Emilian there is further a tendency to eliminate the protonic vowelsf-a tendency much more, pronounced in the Second of these groups than in the first (e. . Pied. dné, danaro; osin, vicin0;f1156, fmocchio; Bolognese épra, ciisperato). This phenomenon involves in large measure that of the pro thesis of a;as, e.g. in Piedmontese and Emilian armor, rumore; Emilian aloar, levare, &c. U for the long accented Latin u and ii for the short accented Latin o (and even within certain limits the short Latin 6 of position) are Common to the Piedmontese, the Ligurian, the Lombard and the northernmost section of the Emilian: e.g., Turinese, Milanese and Piacentine dur, and Genoese dun, duro; Turinese and Genoese move, Parmigiane mover, and Milanese mof, muooere; Piedmontese dorm, dorme; Milanese volta, volta. Ei for the long accented Latin e and for the short accented Latin i is commbn to the Piedmontese and the Ligurian, and even extends over a large part of Emilia: e.g.Turinese and Genoese avéi, habere, Bolognese avéir; Turinese and Genoese beive, bibere Bolognese neiv, neve. In Emilia and part of Piedmont ei occurs also in the formulae én, ent, emp; e.g. Bolognese and Modenese bein, solaméint. In connexion with these examples, there is also the Bolognese fein, Ital. fine, representing the series in which e is derived from an i followed by n, a phenomenon which occurs,

to a greater or less extent throughout the Emilian dialects; in them