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more directing power the vertical axis is nearer the screw than in ordinary meters, and the vane is larger. A second horizontal vane is attached by the screws x, x, the object of which is to allow the meter to rest on the ground without the motion of the screw being interfered with. The string or wire for starting and stopping the meter is

FIG. 141. carried through the centre of the vertical axis, so that the strain on it may not tend to pull the meter oblique to the current. The pitch of the screw is about 9 in. The screws at x serve for filling the meter with water. The whole apparatus is fixed to a rod (fig. 142), of a length proportionate to the depth, or for very great depths it is fixed to a weighted bar lowered by ropes, a plan invented by Revy. The instrument is generally used thus. The reading of the counter is —g noted, and it is put out of gear. The meter is 0 then lowered into the Water to the required position from a platform between two boats, or better from a temporary bridge. Then the counter 1S put into gear for one, two or five minutes. Lastly, the instrument is raised and the counter again read. The velocity is 0 deduced from the number of rotations in unit time by the formulae given below. For surface velocities the counter may be kept permanently in gear, the screw being started " and stopped by hand. § 141. The Harlacher Current Meter.-In this the ordinary counting apparatus is abandoned. A worm drives a worm wheel, which makes an electrical contact once for each 100 rotations of the worm. This contact gives a signal above water. With this arrangement, a series of velocity observations can be made, without removing the instrument from the water, and a number of practical difficulties attending the accurate starting and stopping of the ordinary counter are entirely got rid of. Fig. 143 shows the meter. The worm wheel z makes one rotation for 100 of the screw. A pin moving the lever x makes the 1 electrical contact. The wires b, c are led through a gas pipe B; this also serves to ° ~ adjust the meter to any required position on the wooden rod dd. The rudder or vane is shown at WH. The galvanic current acts on the electromagnet rn, which is fixed in a small metal box containing also the battery. The magnet exposes and withdraws a coloured disk at an opening in the cover of the box. § 142. Arnsler Lafon Current Meter.-A very convenient and accurate current meter is constructed by Amsler Laffon of Schaffhausen. This can be used on a rod, and put into and out of gear by a ratchet. The peculiarity in this case is that there is a double ratchet, so that one pull on the string puts the counter into gear and a second puts it out of gear. The string may be slack during the action of the meter, and there is less uncertainty than when the i - ll. I FIG. 142. counter has to be held in gear. For deep streams the meter A is suspended by a wire with a heavy lenticular weight below (fig. 144). The wire is payed out from a small winch D, with an index showing the depth of the meter, and passes over a pulley B. The meter is in gimbals and is directed by a conical rudder which keeps it facing the stream with its axis horizontal. There is an electric circuit from a battery C through the meter, and a contact is made closing the circuit every 100 revolutions. The moment the circuit closes a bell rings. By a subsidiary arrangement, when the foot of the instrument, 0-3 metres below the axis of the meter, touches the ground the circuit is also closed and the bell rings. It is easy to distinguish the continuous ring when the ground is reached from the short ring when the counter signals. A convenient winch for the wire is so graduated that if ll l""'t 5* Wig., fb b c u 4§ r c l.;1..;; "V N .., ..... <4 », V st r as '/ 4,12 B, .ll

V A d V

fr/ I r»““» 'Qi “ = L/ A 1. ' Fl A f W 1 / . . H - - | »= - = I. ' , . 'f 4 FIG. 143. set when the axis of the meter is at the water surface it indicates at any moment the depth of the meter below the surface. Fig. 144 shows the meter as used on a boat. It is a very convenient instrument for obtaining the velocity at different depths and can also be used as a sounding instrument. § 143. Determination of the Coejiciients of the Current Meter.-Suppose a series of observations has been made by towing the meter in still water at different speeds, and that it is required to ascertain from these the constants of the meter. If 71 is the velocity of the watergand n the observed number of rotations per second, let '-11 = a -l-Bn (1) where a and B are constants. Now let the meter be towed over a measured distance L, and let N be the revolutions of the meter and t the time of transit. Then the speed of the meter relatively to the water is L/t=fv feet per second, and the number of revolutions per second is N/t=n. Suppose rn observations have been made in this way, furnishing corresponding values of 1: and n, the speed in each trial being as uniform as possible, 27t=7t1 - 21J='v1-l-112+ 2nv=n1°v1+n2v2+ » 2n”=ni-l-115+ - ~-En]2=[r11+n2+ -