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LUGO—LUGUDUNUM

British East Africa Company. In their service he explored the Sabaki river and the neighbouring region, and elaborated a scheme for the emancipation of the slaves held by the Arabs in the Zanzibar mainland. In 1890 he was sent by the company to Uganda, where he secured British predominance and put an end to the civil disturbances, though not without severe fighting, chiefly notable for an unprovoked attack by the “ French ” on the “ British ” faction. While administering Uganda he journeyed round Ruwenzori to Albert Edward Nyanza, mapping a large area of the country. He also visited Albert Nyanza, and brought away some thousands of Sudanese who had been left there by Emin Pasha and H. M. Stanley. In 1892 Lugard returned to England, where he successfully opposed the abandonment of Uganda by Great Britain, a step then contemplated by the fourth Gladstone administration. In 1894 Lugard was dispatched by the Royal Niger Company to Borgu, where, distancing his French and German rivals in a country up to then unvisited by any Europeans, he secured treaties with the kings and chiefs acknowledging the sovereignty of the British company. In 1896–1897 he took charge of an expedition to Lake Ngami on behalf of the British West Charterland Company. From Ngami he was recalled by the British government and sent to West Africa, where he was commissioned to raise a native force to protect British interests in the hinterland of Lagos and Nigeria against French aggression. In August 1897 he raised the West African Frontier Force, and commanded it until the end of December 1899. The differences with France were then composed, and, the Royal Niger Company having surrendered its charter, Lugard was chosen as high commissioner of Northern Nigeria. The part of Northern Nigeria under effective control was small, and Lugard's task in organizing this vast territory was rendered more difficult by the refusal of the sultan of Sokoto and many other Fula princes to fulfil their treaty obligations. In 1903 a successful campaign against the emir of Kano and the sultan of Sokoto rendered the extension of British control over the whole protectorate possible, and when in September 1906 he resigned his commissioner ship, the whole country was being peacefully administered under the supervision of British residents (see Nigeria). In April 1907 he was appointed governor of Hong-Kong. Lugard was created a C.B. in 1895 and a K.C.M.G. in 1901. He became a colonel in 1905, and held the local rank of brigadier-general. He married in 1902 Flora Louise Shaw (daughter of Major-General George Shaw, C.B., R.A.), who for some years had been a distinguished writer on colonial subjects for The Times. Sir Frederick (then Captain) Lugard published in 1893 The Rise of our East African Empire (partly auto-biographical), and was the author of various valuable reports on Northern Nigeria issued by the Colonial Office. Throughout his African administrations Lugard sought strenuously to secure the amelioration of the condition of the native races, among other means by the exclusion, wherever possible, of alcoholic liquors, and by the suppression of slave raiding and slavery.


LUGO, a maritime province of north-western Spain, formed in 1833 of districts taken from the old province of Galicia, and bounded N. by the Atlantic, E. by Oviedo and Leon, S. by Orense, and W. by Pontevedra and Corunna. Pop. (1900) 465,386; area, 3814 sq. m. The coast, which extends for about 40 m. from the estuary of Rivadéo to Cape de Vares, is extremely rugged and inaccessible, and few of the inlets, except those of Rivadéo and Vivero, admit large vessels. The province, especially in the north and east, is mountainous, being traversed by the Cantabrian chain and its offshoots; the sierra which separates it from Leon attains in places a height of 6000 ft. A large part of the area is drained by the Mino. This river, formed by the meeting of many smaller streams in the northern half of the province, follows a southerly direction until joined by the Sil, which for a considerable distance forms the southern boundary. Of the rivers flowing north into the Atlantic, the most important are the N avia, which has its lower course through Oviedo; the Eo, for some distance the boundary between the two provinces; the Masma, the Oro and the Landrove.

Some of the valleys of Lugo are fertile, and yield not only corn but fruit and wine. The principal agricultural wealth, however, is on the Mino and Sil, where rye, maize, wheat, Hax, hemp and a little silk are produced. Agriculture is in a very backward condition, mainly owing to the extreme division of land that prevails throughout Galicia. The exportation of cattle to Great Britain, formerly a Hourishing trade, was ruined by American and Australian competition. Iron is found at Caurel and Incio, arsenic at Castroverde and Cervantes, argentiferous lead at Riotorto; but, although small quantities of iron and arsenic are exported from Rivadéo, frequent strikes and lack of transport greatly impeded the development of mining in the earlier years of the zoth century. There are also quarries of granite, marble and various kinds of slate and building-stone. The only important manufacturing industries are those connected with leather, preserves, coarse woollen and linen stuffs, timber and osier work. About 250 coasting vessels are registered at the ports, and about as many boats constitute the fishing fleet, which brings in lampreys, soles, tunny and sardines, the last two being salted and tinned for export. The means of communication are insufficient, though there are over 100 m. of first-class roads, and the railways from Madrid and northern Portugal to Corunna run through the province.

Lugo the capital (pop. 1900, 26,959) and the important towns of Chantada (15,00), Fonsagrada (1 7,302), Mondofredo (IO,59O), Monforte (12,912)$, Panton (12,988), Villalba (13,572) and Vivero (12,843) are described in separate articles. The province contained in 1900 twenty-six towns of more than 7000 inhabitants, the largest being Sarria (11,998) and Savinao (II,182). For a general description of the people and the history of this region see GALICIA.


LUGO, capital of the above Spanish province, is situated on the left bank of the river Miflo and on the railway from Corunna to Madrid. Pop. (1900) 26,9 59. Lugo is an episcopal see, and was formerly the capital of Galicia. Suburbs have grown up round the original town, the form of which, nearly quadrangular, is defined by a massive Roman wall 30 to 40 ft. high and 20 ft. thick, with projecting semicircular towers which numbered 85 as late as 1809, when parts of the fortifications were destroyed by the French. The wall now serves as a promenade. The Gothic cathedral, on the south side of the town, dates from the 12th century, but was modernized in the 18th, and possesses no special architectural merit. The conventual church of Santo Domingo dates from the 14th century. The principal industries are tanning, and the manufacture of linen and woollen cloth. About 1 m. S., on the left bank of the Mifxo, are the famous hot sulphur baths of Lugo.

Lugo (Lucus Augusti) was a flourishing city under Roman rule (c. IQ B.C.-A.D. 409) and was made by Augustus the seat of a confventus juridic us (assize). Its sulphur baths were even then well known. It was sacked by barbarian invaders in the 5th century, and suffered greatly in the Moorish wars of the 8th century. The bishopric dates from a very early period, and it it said to have acquired metropolitan rank in the middle of the 6th century; it is now in the archiepiscopal province of Santiago de Compostela.


LUGOS, the capital of the county of Krasso-Szorény, Hungary, 225 m. S.E. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900) 16,126. It is situated on both banks of the river Temes, which divides the town in two quarters, the Rumanian on the right and the German on the left bank. It is the seat of a Greek-United (Rumanian) bishop. Lugos carries on an active trade in wine, and has several important fairs, while the surrounding country, which is mountainous and well-wooded, produces large quantities of grapes and plums. Lugos was once a strongly fortined place and of greater relative importance than at present. It was the last seat of the Hungarian revolutionary government (August 1849), and the last resort of Kossuth and several other leaders of the national cause, previous to their escape to Turkey.


LUGUDUNUM, or Lugdunum, an old Celtic place-name (fort or hill of the god Lugos or Lug) used by the Romans for several towns in ancient Gaul. The most important was the town at the confidence of the Saone and Rhone now called Lyons (q.v.). This place had in Roman times two elements. One was a Roman colonia (municipality of Roman citizens, self-governing) situated