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LUNDI-LUNDY

LUND, a city of Sweden, the seat of a bishop, in the district (lan) of Malmohus, ro m. N.E. of Malmo by rail. Pop. (1900) 16,621. A university was founded here in 1668 by Charles XI., with faculties of law, medicine, theology and philosophy. The number of students ranges from 600 to 800, and there are about 5o professors. Its library of books and MSS. is entitled to receive a copy of every work printed in Sweden. Important buildings include the university hall (1882), the academic union of the students (1851) containing an art museum; the &tronomical observatory, built in 1866, though observations have been carried on since 1760; the botanical museum, and ethnographical and industrial art collections, illustrating life in southern Sweden from early times. Each student belongs to one of twelve nations (landskap), which mainly comprises students from a particular part of the country. The Romanesque cathedral was founded about the middle of the 10th century. The crypt under the raised transept and choir is one of the largest in the world, and the church is one of the finest in Scandinavia. A statue of the poet Esaias Tegner stands in the Tegners Plads, and the house in which he lived from 1813 to 1826 is indicated by an inscribed stone slab. The chief industries are sugar-refining, iron and brick works, and the manufacture of furniture and gloves. Lund (Londinum Gothorum), the “Lunda at Eyrarsund” of Egil's Saga, was of importance in Egil's time (c. 920). It appears that, if not actually a seaport, it was at least nearer the Sound than now. In the middle of the 11th century it was made a bishopric, and in IIO3 the seat of an archbishop who received primatial rank over all Scandinavia in 1163, but in 1536 Lund was reduced to a bishopric. Close to the town, at the hill of Sliparabacke, the Danish kings used to receive the homage of the princes of Skare, and a monument records a victory of Charles XI. over the Danes (1676), which extinguished the Danish claim to suzerainty over this district.


LUNDY, BENJAMIN (1789-1839), American philanthropist, prominent in the anti-slavery conflict, was born of Quaker parentage, at Hardwick, Warren county, New ]ersey, on the 4th of January 1789. As a boy he worked on his father's farm, attending school for only brief periods, and in 1808-1812 he lived at Wheeling, Virginia (now W. Va.), where he served an apprenticeship to a saddler, and where-Wheeling being an important headquarters of the inter-State slave trade-he first became deeply impressed with the iniquity of the institution of slavery, and determined to devote his life to the cause of abolition. In 181 5, while living at Saint Clairsville, Ohio, he organized an antislavery association, known as the “ Union Humane Society, ” which within a few months had a membership of more than five hundred men. For a short time he assisted Charles Osborne in editing the Philanthropist; in 1819 he went to St Louis, Missouri, and there in I8IQ"'182O took an active part in the slavery controversy; and in 1821 he founded at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, an anti-slavery paper, the Genius of Universal Emancipation. This periodical, first a monthly and later a weekly, was published successively in Ohio, Tennessee, Maryland, the District of Columbia and Pennsylvania, though it appeared irregularly, and at times, when Lundy was away on lecturing tours, was issued from any office that was accessible to him. From September 1829 until March 1830 Lundy was assisted in the editorship of the paper by William Lloyd Garrison (q.v.). Besides travelling through many states of the United States to deliver anti-slavery lectures, Lundy visited Haiti twice-in 1825 and 1829, the Wilberforce colony of freedmen and refugee slaves in Canada in 183O"183I, and in 1832 and again in 183 3ifT€X3S, all these visits being made, in part, to find a suitable place outside the United States to which emancipated slaves might be sent. Between 182O and 1830, according to a statement made by Lundy himself, he travelled “ more than 5000 m. on foot and 20,000 in other ways, visited nineteen states of the Union, and held more than 200 public meetings.” He was bitterly denounced by slaveholders and also by such non-slaveholders as disapproved of all antislavery agitation, and in January 1827 he was assaulted and seriously injured by a slave-trader, Austin Woolfolk, whom he had severely criticized in his paper. In 1836-1838 Lundy edited in Philadelphia a new anti-slavery weekly, The National Enquirer, which he had founded, and which under the editorship of John G. Whittier, Lundy's successor, became The Pennsylvania Freeman. In 1838 Lundy removed to Lowell, La Salle county, Illinois, where he printed several copies of the Genius of Universal Emancipation. There, on the 22nd of August 1839, he died. Lundy is said to have been the first to deliver anti-slavery lectures in the United States.

See The Liye, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy (Philadelphia, 1847, compiled (by Thomas Earle) “ under the direction and on behalf of his children.”


LUNDY, ROBERT (fl. 1689), governor of Londonderry. Nothing is known of Lundy's parentage or early life; but he had seen service in the foreign wars before 1688, when he was at Dublin with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the regiment of Lord Mountjoy. When the apprentices of Derry closed the gates in the face of the earl of Antrim, who was approaching the city at the head of an Irish Catholic force in the interests of James II., the Viceroy Tyrconnel dispatched Mountjoy to pacify the Protestants. Mountjoy and his regiment were well received in the north, and the citizens of Derry permitted him to leave within their walls a small Protestant garrison under the command of Lundy, who assumed the title of governor. Popular feeling in Derry ran so strongly in favour of the prince of Orange that Lundy quickly declared himself an adherent of William; and he obtained from him a commission confirming his appointment as governor. Whether Lundy was a deliberate traitor to the cause he had embraced with explicit asseveration of fidelity in a signed document, or whether, as Macaulay suggests, he was only a cowardly poltroon, cannot certainly be known. What is certain is that from the moment Londonderry was menaced by the troops of King James, Lundy used all his endeavours to paralyse the defence of the city. In April 1689 he was in command of a force of Protestants who encountered some troops under Richard Hamilton at Strabane, when, instead of holding his ground, he told his men that all was lost and ordered them to shift for themselves; he himself was the first to take flight back to Derry. King James, then at Omagh on his way to the north, similarly turned in iiight towards Dublin on hearing of the skirmish, but returned next day on receiving the true account of the occurrence. On the 14th of April English ships appeared in the Foyle with reinforcements for Lundy under Colonel Cunningham. Lundy dissuaded Cunningham from landing his regiments, representing that a defence of Londonderry was hopeless; and that he himself intended to withdraw secretly from the city. At the same time he sent to the enemy's headquarters a promise to surrender the city at the first summons. As soon as this became known to the citizens Lundy's life was in danger, and he was vehemently accused of treachery. When the enemy appeared before the walls Lundy gave orders that there should be no firing. But all authority had passed out of his hands. The people flew to arms under the direction of Major Henry Baker and Captain Adam Murray, who organized the famous defence in conjunction with the Rev. George Walker (q.v.). Lundy, to avoid popular vengeance, hid himself until nightfall, when by the connivance of Walker and Murray he made his escape in disguise. He was apprehended in Scotland and sent to the Tower of London. He was excluded from the Act of Indemnity in 1690, but his subsequent fate is unknown.

See Lord Macaulay, History of England, vol. iii, (Albany edition of complete works, London, 1898); Rev. George Walker, A True Account of the Siege of Londonderry (London, 168); ]. Mackenzie, Narrative of the Siege of Londonderry (London, 1690?; John Hempton, The Siege and History of Londonderry (Londonderry, 1861); Rev. John Graham, A History of the Siege of Derry and Defence of Enniskillen, 1688-9 (Dublin, 1829). (R. ]. M.)


LUNDY, an English island at the entrance of the Bristol Channel, 12 m. N.W. by N . of the nearest point on the mainland, namely Hartland Point on the Devonshire coast. The nearest ports are Clovelly and Bideford. The extreme length of the island is 3 m. from N. to S., the mean breadth about half a mile, but at the south the breadth is nearly 1 m. The area is about II 50