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LUNG—LUPINE

an ancient cult of Diana, the moon goddess, a sacred fountain and medals with the effigy of this goddess having been found at Leormont, some 2 m. F.. of the town. Lunéville belonged to Austrasia, and after various changes fell, in 1344, to the house of Lorraine. A walled town in the middle ages, it suffered in the Thirty Years' War and in the campaigns of Louis XIV. from war, plague and famine. The town flourished again under Dukes Leopold and Stanislas, on the death of the latter of whom, which took place at-Lunéville, Lorraine was united to France (1766). The treaty of Lunéville between France and Austria (1801) confirmed the former power in the possession of the left bank of the Rhine.


LUNG, in anatomy, the name of each of the pair of organs of respiration in man and other air-breathing animals, the corresponding organs in fishes being the branchiae or gills (see Respiratory System). The word in Old English was lungen; it appears in many Teutonic languages, cf. Ger. Lunge, Du. long, Swed. lunga; the Teutonic root from which these are derived meant “ light,” and the lungs were so-called from their lightness. The word “ lights ” was formerly used as synonymous with “ lungs,” but is now confined to the lungs of sheep, pigs or cattle; it is etymologically connected with “ lung,” the pre-Teutonic root being seen in Sansk. laghu, Gr. ἐλαφρός.

SURGERY of THE LUNG AND PLEURA.—When a person meets with a severe injury to the chest, as from a wheel passing over him, the ribs may be broken and driven into the lung. Air then entering into the pleural space, the lung collapses, and breathing becomes so difficult that death may ensue from asphyxia. Short of this, however, there is a cough with the spitting of frothy, blood-stained mucus or of bright red blood. All that can be done is to place the person on his back, slightly propped up by pillows, and to combat syncope by subcutaneous injections of ether and strychnine.

Empyema means the presence of an abscess between the lung and the chest wall, i.e. in the pleural space; it is the result of a septic inflammation of the pleura by the micro-organisms of pneumonia on of typhoid fever, or by some other germs. As the abscess increases in size, the lung is pushed towards the spine, and that side of the chest gives a dull note on percussion. If much fluid collects the heart may be pushed out of its place, and, the lung-space being taken up, respiration is embarrassed. Having made sure ot the presence of an abscess by exploring with syringe and hollow needle, the surgeon opens and drains it. The drainage is made more effectual by removing an inch or so of one of the ribs, for, unless this is done, there is a risk of the rubber drainage tube being compressed as the ribs come closer together again.

The lung itself has sometimes to be operated on, as when it is the seat of an hydatid cyst, or when it contains an abscess cavity which cannot otherwise be drained, or when it becomes necessary to remove a foreign body the exact situation of which has been revealed by the X-rays. Portions of some of the ribs having been resected, the pleural cavity is opened, and if the lung has not already become glued to the chest-wall by inflammatory adhesions, it is stitched up to the chest-wall, and in a few days, when adhesions have taken place, an incision is safely made into the lung-tissue. See also Respiratory System.  (E. O.*) 


LUNG, one of the four symbolical creatures of Chinese legend. It is a dragon with a scaly snake-like body, long claws, horns, a bristly face, and its back-bone armed with spikes. Originally three-clawed, it has become, as the official dragon of the present dynasty, a five-clawed beast. The form is embroidered on the state robes of the emperor of China, and it is traditionally connected with the dynasty's history and fortunes.


LUNGCHOW, a town in the province of Kwangsi, China, in 22° 21, N., 106° 4 5' E., near the Tongking frontier, and at the junction of the Sung-chi and Kao-ping rivers. Pop. (estimate) 22,000. The town is prettily situated in a circular valley. From a military point of view it is considered important, and considerable bodies of troops are stationed here. It was selected as the seat of frontier trade by the French convention of 1886, and was opened in 1889. In 1898 the total value of its trade amounted to only £20,000, but in 1904 the figures increased to £S6,692.


LUNGE, GEORG (1839-), German chemist, was born at Breslau on the 15th of September 1839. He studied at Heidelberg (under R. W. Bunsen) and Breslau, graduating at the latter university in 1859. Turning his attention to technical chemistry, he became chemist at several works both in Germany and England, and in 1876 he was appointed professor of technical chemistry at Zurich polytechnic. Lunge's original contributions cover a .very wide field, dealing both with technical processes and analysis. In addition, he was a voluminous writer, enriching scientific literature with many standard works. His treatises Coal Tar and Ammonia (5th ed. 1909; 1st ed. 1867), Destillation des Steinkohlenlheers) and Sulphuric Acid and Alkali (1st ed. 1878, 4th ed. 1909), established his position as the highest authority on these subjects, while the Chemische-techntsche U ntersuohungs»M ethoden (1899-1900; Eng. trans.), to which he contributed, testified to his researches in technical analysis. His jubilee was celebrated at Zurich on the 15th of September 1909.


LUPERCALIA, a very ancient, possibly pre-Roman, pastoral festival in honour of Lupercus. Its rites were under the superintendence of a corporation of priests called Luperci) whose institution is attributed either to the Arcadian Evander, or to Romulus and Remus. In front of the Porta Romana, on the western side of the Palatine hill, close to the Ficus Ruminalis and the Casa Romuli, was the cave of Lupercus, in it, according to the legend, the she-wolf had suckled the twins, and the bronze wolf, which is still preserved in the Capitol, was placed in it in 296 B.C. But the festival itself, which was held on February 1 5th, contains no reference to the Romulus legend, which is probably later in origin, though earlier than the grecizing Evander legend. The festival began with the sacrifice by the Luperci (or the fiamen dialis) of goats and a dog; after which two of the Luperci were led to the altar, their foreheads were touched with a bloody knife, and the blood wiped off with wool dipped in milk; then the ritual required that the two young men should laugh. The smearing of the forehead with blood probably refers to human sacrifice originally practised at the festival. The sacrificial feast followed, after which the Luperci cut thongs from the skins of the victims and ran in two bands round the walls of the old Palatine city, the line of which was marked with stones, striking the people who crowded near. A blow from the thong prevented sterility in women. These thongs were called februa, the festival Februatio, and the day dies februatus (februare=to purify); hence the name of the month February, the last of the old Roman year. The object of the festival was, by expiation and purification, to secure the fruitfulness of the land, the increase of the flocks and the prosperity of the whole people. The Lupercal (cave of Lupercus), which had fallen into a state of decay, was rebuilt by Augustus; the celebration of the festival had been maintained, as we know from the famous occurrence of it in 44 B.c. It survived until A.D. 494, when it was changed by Gelasius into the feast of the Purincation. Lupercus, in whose honour the festival was held, is identified with Faunus or Inuus, Evander (Efiavcipos), in the Greek legend being a translation of Faunus (the “kindly ”). The Luperci were divided into “two collegia, called Quinctiliani (or Quinctiales) and Fabiani, from the gens Quinctilia (or Quinctia) 2 and Fabia; at the head of each of these colleges was a magister. In 44 B.C. a third college, Luperci Julii, was instituted in honour of Julius Caesar, the first magister of which was Mark Antony. In imperial times the members were usually of equestrian standing.

See Marquardt, Riimische Staatsverwallung, iii. (1885) . 438 W. Warde Fowler, Raman Festivals (1899), p. 390 foll., anti) article in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed. 1891).


LUPINE (Lupinus), in botany, algenus of about 100 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants of the tribe Genisteae, of the order Leguminosae. Species with digitate leaves range along the west side of America from British Columbia to northern Chile, while a few occur in the Mediterranean regions. A few others with entire leaves are found in Brazil and eastern North America. The leaves are remarkable for “ sleeping ” in three different ways. From being in the form of a horizontal star by day, the leaflets either fall and form a, hollow cone with their Many derivations are suggested, but it seems most probable that Luperci simply means “ wolves " (the last part of the word exhibiting a similar formation to nov-erca), the name having its origin in the primitive worship of the wolf as a wolf-god.

2 Mommsen considers the Quinctia to be the older gens, and the Quinctilia a later introduction from Alba.-