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172
LYNN—LYNX

up in Mantua with Wiirmser's army, escaped in disguise, and after many adventures reached the relieving army of Alvinzi just before the battle of Rivoli. On returning to his regiment he served in more “ conjunct ” expeditions, in one of which, at Messina, he co-operated with Nelson, and in 1799 he was sent as brigadier-general to invest the fortress of Valetta, Malta. He blockaded the place for two years, and though Major-Genera1 Pigot arrived shortly before the close of the blockade and assumed command, the conquest of Malta stands almost wholly to the credit of Graham and his naval colleague Sir Alexander Ball. In 1801 Graham proceeded to Egypt, where his regiment was engaged in Abercromby's expedition, but arrived too late to take part in any lighting. He took the opportunity afforded by the peace of Amiens to visit Turkey, Austria, Germany and France, and only resumed command of his regiment in 1804. When the latter was ordered to the West Indies he devoted himself to his duties as a member of parliament. He sat for Perthshire until 1807, when he was defeated, as he was again in 1812. Graham was with Moore in Sweden in 1808 and in Spain 1808-1809, and was present at his death at the battle of Corunna. In 1809 hebecame a major-general, and after taking part in the disastrous Walcheren expedition he was promoted lieutenant-general and sent to Cadiz (1810). In 1811, acting in conjunction with the Spanish army under General la Pena (see PENINSULAR WAR), he took the offensive, and won the brilliant action of Barossa (5th of March). The victory was made barren of result by the timidity of the Spanish generals. The latter nevertheless claimed more than their share of the credit, and Graham answered them with spirit. One of the Spanish officers he called out, fought and disarmed, and after refusing with contempt the offer of a Spanish dukedom, he resigned his command in the south and joined Wellington in Portugal. His seniority as lieutenant-general made him second in command of Wellington's army. He took part in the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, and commanded a wing of the army in the siege of Badajoz and the advance to Salamanca. In July 181 2, his eyesight becoming seriously impaired, he went home, but rejoined in time to lead the detached wing of the army in the wide ranging manoeuvre which culminated in the battle of Vittoria. Graham was next entrusted with the investment and siege of San Sebastian, which after a desperate defence fell on the 9th of September 1813. He then went home, but in 1814 accepted the command of a corps to be dispatched against Antwerp. His assault on Bergen op Zoom was, however, disastrously repulsed (3rd of February 1814).

At the peace Graham retired from active military employment. He was created Baron Lynedoch of Balgowan in the peerage of the United Kingdom, but refused the offered pension of £2000 a year. In 1813 he proposed the formation of a military club in London, and though Lord St Vincent considered such an assemblage of officers to be unconstitutional, Welhngton supported it and the officers of the army and navy at large received the idea with enthusiasm. Lyned0ch's portrait, by Sir T. Lawrence, is in possession of this club, the (Senior) United Service. In his latter years he resumed the habits of his youth, travelling all over Europe, hunting with the Pytchley so long as he was able to sit his horse, actively concerned in politics and voting consistently for liberal measures. At the age of ninety two he hastened from Switzerland to Edinburgh to receive Queen Victoria when she visited Scotland after her marriage. He died in London on the 18th of December 1843. He had been made a full general in 1821, and at the time of his death was a G.C.B., Colonel of the 1st (Royal Scots) regiment, and governor of Dumbarton Castle.

See biographies by John Murray Graham (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1877) and Captain A. M. Delavoye (London, 1880); also the latter's History of the oolh (Perthshire Volunteers) (London, 1880), Philipparts Royal Military Calendar (1820), ii. 147, and Gentleman's Magazine, new series, xxi. 197.


LYNN, a city and-seaport of Essex county, Massachusetts, 9 m. N.E. of Boston, on the N. shore of Massachusetts Bay. Pop. (1900) 68,513, of whom 17,742 were foreign-born (6609 being English Canadians, 5306 Irish, 1527 English and 1280 French Canadians), and 784 were negroes; (1910 census) 89,336 It is served by the Boston & Maine and the Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn railways, and by an interurban electric railway, and has an area of 10-85 sq. m. The business part is built near the shore on low, level ground, and the residential sections are on the higher levels. Lynn Woods, a beautiful park, covers more than 2000 acres. On the shore, which has a fine boulevard, is a state bath house. The city has a handsome city hall, a free public library, founded in 1862, a soldiers' monument and two hospitals. Lynn is primarily a manufacturing city. The first smelting works in New England were established here in 1643. More important and earlier was the manufacture of boots and shoes, an industry introduced in 1636 by Philip Kertland, a Buckingham man; a corporation of shoemakers existed here in 1651, whose papers were lost in 1765. There were many court orders in the seventeenth century to butchers, tanners, boot makers and cordwainers; and the business was made more important by John Adam Dagyr (d. 1808), a Welshman who came here in 1750 and whose work was equal to the best in England. In 1767 the output was 80,000 pairs; in 1795 about 300,000 pairs of women's shoes were made by 600 journeymen and 200 master workmen. The product of w0men's shoes had become famous in 1764, and about 1783 the use of morocco had been introduced by Ebenezer Breed. In 1900 and 1905 Lynn was second only to Brockton among the cities of the United States in the value of boots and shoes manufactured, and outranked Brockton in the three allied industries, the manufacture of boots and shoes, of cut stock and of Endings. In the value of its total manufactured product Lynn ranked second to Boston in the state in 1905, having been fifth in 1900; the total number of factories in 1905 was 431; their capital was $23,1 39,185; their employees numbered 21, 540; and their product was valued at $55,003,023 (as compared with $39,347,493 in 1900). Patent medicines and compounds and the manufacture of electrical machinery are prominent industries. The Lynn factories of the General Electric Company had in 1906 an annual product worth between $15,000,000 and $20,000,000 The foreign export of manufactured products is estimated at $5,000,000 a year. Lynn was founded in 1629 and was called Saugus until 1637, when the present name was adopted, from Lynn Regis, Norfolk, the home of the Rev. Samuel Whiting (1597-1679), pastor at Lynn from 1636 until his death. From Lynn Reading was separated in 1644, Lynnfield in 1782, Saugus in 1815, and, after the incorporation of the city of Lynn in 18 50, Swampscott in 1852, and in 1853 Nahant, S. of Lynn, on a picturesque peninsula and now a fashionable summer resort.

See James R. Newhall, History of Lynn (Lynn, 1883), and H. K. Sanderson, Lynn in the Revolution (1910).


LYNTON and LYNMOUTH, two seaside villages in the Barnstaple parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the Bristol Channel; 17 m. E. of Ilfracombe, served by the Lynton light railway. which joins the South Western and Great Western lines at Barnstaple. Both are favoured as summer resorts. Lynmouth stands where two small streams, the East Lyn and West Lyn, flow down deep and well-wooded valleys to the sea. Lynton is on the cliff-edge, 430 ft. above. A lift connects the villages. The industries are fishing anda small coasting trade. Not far off are the Doone Valley, part of the vale of the East Lyn, here called Badgeworthy water, once the stronghold of a notorious band of robbers and famous through R. D. Blackmore's novel Lorna Doane; Watersmeet, where two streams, the Tavy and Walkham, join amid » wild and beautiful scenery; and the Valley of Rocks, a narrow glen strewn with immense boulders. Lynton is an urban district, with a population (1901) of 1641.


LYNX (Lat. Lynx, Gr. 7'y£, probably connected with hebooecv, to see), a genus of mammals of the family Felidae, by some naturalists regarded only as a subgenus or section of the typical genus F clis (see CARNIVORA). As an English word (lynx) the name is used of any animal of this group. It is not certain to which of these, if to any of them, the Greek name)'y£ was especially applied, though it was more probably the caracal (q.v.) than any