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LORIENT—LORIS-MELIKOV

bark, medicinal products, fish, fruits and fibres. The cultivated products include cocoa, coffee, tobacco and fruits. Straw hats and hammocks are manufactured to some extent. The natural outlet of this region is the Amazon river, but this involves 2500 m. of river navigation from Iquitos before the ocean is reached. Communication with the Pacific coast cities and ports of Peru implies the crossing of three high, snow-covered ranges of the Andes by extremely difficult trails and passes. A rough mountain road has been constructed from Oroya to Puerto Bermudez, at the head of navigation on the Pachitea, and is maintained by the government pending the construction of a railway, but the distance is 210 m. and it takes nine days for a mule train to make the journey. At Puerto Bermudez a river steamer connects with Iquitos, making the distance of 930 m. in seven days. From Lima to Iquitos by this route, therefore, involves 17 days travel over a distance of 1268 m. The most feasible route from the department to the Pacific coast is that which connects Puerto Limon, on the Maraxion, with the Pacific port of Payta, a distance of 410 m., it being possible to cross the Andes on this route at the low elevation of 6600 ft. The climate of Loreto is hot and humid, except on the higher slopes of the Andes. The year is divided into a wet and a dry season, the first from May to October, and the average annual rainfall is estimated at 70 in. though it varies widely between distant points. The capital and only town of importance in the department is Iquitos.


LORIENT, a maritime town of western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Morbihan, on the light bank of the Scorff at its confidence with the Blavet, 34 m. W. by N. of Vannes by rail. Pop. (1906) 40,848. The town is modern and regularly built. Its chief objects of interest are the church of St Louis (1709) and a statue by A. Mercié of Victor Massé, the composer, born at Lorient in 1822. It is one of the five maritime prefectures in France and the first port for naval construction in the country. The naval port to the east of the town is formed by the channel of the Scorff, on the right bank of which the chief naval establishments are situated. These include magazines, foundries, forges, fitting-shops, rope-works and other Workshops on the most extensive scale, as well as a graving dock, a covered slip and other slips. A floating bridge connects the right bank with the peninsula of Caudan formed by the union of the ScorE and Blavet. Here are the shipbuilding yards covering some 38 acres, and comprising nine slips for large vessels and two others for smaller vessels, besides forges and workshops for iron shipbuilding. The commercial port to the south of the town consists of an outer tidal port protected by a jetty and of an inner dock, both lined by ine quays planted with trees. It separates the older part of the town, which is hemmed in by fortifications from a newer quarter. In 1905, 121 vessels of 28,785 tons entered with cargo and 145 vessels of 38,207 tons cleared. The chief export is pit-timber, the chief import is coal. Fishing is actively carried on. Lorient is the seat of a sub-prefect, of commercial and maritime tribunals and of a tribunal of first instance, and has a chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycée, schools of navigation, and naval artillery. Private industry is also engaged in iron-working and engine making. The trade in fresh fish, sardines, oysters (which are reared near Lorient) and tinned vegetables is important and the manufacture of basketwork, tin-boxes and passementerie, and the preparation of preserved sardines and vegetables are carried on. The road stead, formed by the estuary of the Blavet, is accessible to vessels of the largest size; the entrance, 3 or 4 m. south from Lorient, which is defended by numerous forts, is marked on the east by the peninsula of Gavres (an artillery practising ground) and the fortified town of Port Louis; on the west are the fort of Loqueltas and, higher up, the battery of Kernevel. In the middle of the channel is the granite rock of St Michel, occupied by a powder magazine. Opposite it, on the right bank of the Blavet, is the mouth of the river Ter, with fish and oyster breeding establishments from which ro millions of oysters are annually obtained. The road stead is provided with six lighthouses. Above Lorient on the Scorff, here spanned by a suspension bridge, is Kérentrech, a pretty village surrounded by numerous country houses. | Lorient took the place of, Port1Louis:aB§ .fsl1$pm=tof the Blavet. I The latter .standson the<*Me'@.of~..an.~a.noient' hamlet which was fortified djuring»the. vwarsmftthe League and handed over by Philip Emmanuel, duke ofMorcoeur, to the Spaniards. After the treaty of Vervins it was restored to France, and it received its nameof Port Louis under Richelieu. Some Breton merchants trading with the Indies had established themselves first at Port Louis, but in 1628 they built their warehouses on the other bank. The Compagnie des Indes Orientales, created in 1664, took possession of these, giving them the name of l'Orient. In 1745 the Compagnie des Indes, then at the acme of its prosperity, owned thirty-five ships of the largest class and many others of considerable size. Its decadence dates from the English conquest of India, and in 1770 its property was ceded to the state. In 1782 the town was purchased by Louis XVI.. from its owners, the Rohan-Guéméné family. In 1746 the English under Admiral Richard Lestock made an unsuccessful attackon Lorient.


LORINER, or LORIMER (from O. Fr. loremier or lorenier, a maker of lorains, bridles, from Lat. lorum, thong, bridle; the proper form is with the n; a similar change is found in Latimer for Latiner, the title of an old official of the royal household, the king's interpreter), one who makes bits and spurs and the metal mountings for saddles and bridles; the term is also applied to a worker in wrought iron and to a maker of small iron ware. The word is now rarely used except as the name of one of the London livery companies (see LIVERY COMPANY).


LORIS, a name of uncertain origin applied to the Indo-Malay representatives of the lemurs, which, together with the African pottos, constitute the section Nycticebinae of the family Nycticebidae (see Primates). From their extremely slow movements and lethargic habits in the daytime these weird little creatures are commonly called sloths by Anglo-Indians. Their soft fur, huge staring eyes, rudimentary tails and imperfectly .developed index-fingers render lorises easy of recognition. The smallest is the slender loris (Loris gracilis) of the forests of Madras and Ceylon, a creature smaller than a squirrel. It is of such exceeding strangeness and beauty that it might have been thought it would be protected by the natives; but they hold it alive before a fire till its beautiful eyes burst in order to afford a supposed remedy for ophthalmic! The mainland and Cingalese animals form distinct races. Both in this species and the slow loris there is a pair of rudimentary abdominal teats in addition to the normal pectoral pair. The slow loris (N ycticebus tardigradus) is a heavier built and larger animal, ranging from eastern Bengal to Cochin China, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, lava and Sumatra. There are several races, mostly grey in colour, but the Sumatran N. t. hilleri is reddish.(R. L.*)


LORIS-MELIKOV, MICHAEL TARIELOVICH, Count (1825?-1888), Russian statesman, son of an Armenian merchant, was born at Tifiis in 1825 or 1826, and educated in St Petersburg, first in the Lazarev School of Oriental Languages, and afterwards in the Guards' Cadet Institute. He joined a hussar regiment, and four years afterwards (1847) he was sent to the Caucasus, where he remained for more than twenty years, and made for himself during troublous times the reputation of a distinguished cavalry officer and an able administrator. In the latter capacity, though a keen soldier, he aimed always at preparing the warlike and turbulent population committed to his charge for the transition from military to normal civil administration, and in this work his favourite instrument was the schoolmaster. In the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 he commanded a separate corps d'armée on the Turkish frontier in Asia Minor. After taking the fortress of Ardahan, he was repulsed by Mukhtar Pasha at Zevin, but subsequently defeated his opponent at Aladja Dagh, took Kars by storm, and laid siege to Erzerum. For these services he received the title of Count. In the following year he was appointed temporary governor-general of the region of the Lower Volga, to combat an outbreak of the plague. The measures he adopted proved so effectual that he was transferred to the provinces of Central Russia to combat the Nihilists and Anarchists, who had adopted a policy of terrorism, and had succeeded in assassinating the governor of Kharkov. His