alleged deserter from the British navy, his ship at the time lying under the guns of Gibraltar. When war with England broke out, in 1812, he was ordered to cruise in the lakes between Canada and the United States, with his headquarters on lake Champlain. He was instrumental in saving New York and Vermont from invasion by his brilliant victory of lake Champlain gained, on the 11th of September 1814, with a flotilla of 14 vessels carrying 86 guns, over Captain George Downie's 16 vessels and Q2 guns. For this important achievement New York and Vermont granted him estates, whilst Congress gave him a gold medal.
MACDOWELL, EDWARD ALEXANDER (1861-1908), American musical composer, was born in New York City on the 18th of December 1861. His father, an Irishman of Belfast, had emigrated to America shortly before the -boy's birth. He had a varied education in music, first under Spanish-American teachers, and then in Europe, at Paris (Debussy being a fellow pupil), Stuttgart, Wiesbaden and Weimar, where he was chiefly influenced by Joachim, Raff and Liszt. From 1879 to 1887 he lived in Germany, teaching and studying, and also appearing as solo pianist at important concerts. In 1884 he married Marian Nevins, of New York. In 1888 he returned to America, and settled in Boston till in 1896 he was made professor of music at Columbia University, New York. He resigned this post in 1904, and in 1905 overwork'a'nd insomnia resulted in a complete cerebral collapse. He died on the 24th of January 1908. MacDowell's work gives him perhaps the highest place among American composers. Deeply influenced by modern French models and by German romanticism, full of poetry and “ atmosphere, ” and founded on the “ programme, ” idea of composition, it is essentially creative in the spirit of a searcher after delicate truths of artistic expression. His employment of touches of American folk-song, suggested by Indian themes, is characteristic. This is notably the case with his orchestral Indian Suite (1896) and Woodland Sketches' for the piano. His first concerto, in A minor, for piano and orchestra, and first pianoforte suite, were performed at Weimar in 1882. His works include orchestral suites and “ poems, ” songs, choruses, and various pieces for pianoforte, his own instrument; they are numbered from op. 9 to op. 62, his first eight numbered works being destroyed by him.
See Lawrence Gilman, Edward MacDowell (1906).
MODOWELL, IRVIN (1818-1885), American soldier, was born in Columbus, 0hio, 'on the 15th of October 1818. He was educated in France, and graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1838. From 1841 to 1845 he was instructor, and later adjutant, at West Point. He* won the brevet of captain in the Mexican War, at the battle of Buena Vista, and served as adjutant-general, chiefly at Washington, until 1861, being promoted major in 1856. In 1858-1859 he visited Europe. Whilst occupied in mustering volunteers at the capital, he was made brigadier-general in May 1861, and -placed in command during the premature Virginian campaign of July, which ended in the defeat at Bull Run. Under McClellan he became a corps commander and major-general of volunteers (March 1862). When the Peninsular campaign began McDowe1l's corps was detained against McClellan's wishes, sent away to join in the fruitless chase of “Stonewall” Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, and eventually came under the command of General Pope, taking part in the disastrous campaign of Second Bull Run. Involved in Pope's disgrace, McDowell was relieved of duty in the field (Sept. 1862), and served on the Pacific coast 1864-68. He became, on Meade's death in November 1872, major-general of regulars (a rank which he already held by brevet), and commanded successively the department of the east, the division of the south, and the division of the Pacific until his retirement in 1882. The latter years of his life were spent in California, and he died at San Francisco on the 4th of May 1885. As a commander he was uniformly unfortunate. Undoubtedly he was a faithful, unselfish and energetic soldier, in patriotic sympathy with the administration, and capable 'of great achievements. It was his misfortune to be associated with the first great disaster to the Union cause, to play the part- of D'Erlon at Quatre-Bras between the armies of Banks and McClellan, and finally to be involved in the catastrophe of Pope's campaign. That he was perhaps too ready to accept great risks at fthe instance of his superiors is the only just criticism to which his military character was open.
MACDUFF, a police burgh and seaport of Banffshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901), 3431. It lies on the right bank of 'the mouth of the Deveron, 1 m. E. of Banff and 50% m. N.WL 'of Aberdeen by the Great North of Scotland railway. The site was originally occupied by the fishing village of Doune, but after its purchase by the 1st earl of Fife, about 1732, the name was altered to Macduff by' the 2nd earl, who also procured for -it in 1783 a royal charter constituting it aburgh. In honour of the occasion he rebuilt the market cross, in front of the parish church. The harbour, saferand more accessible than that of Banff, was constructed by the duke of Fife, and transferred to the burgh in 1898. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the herring fishery, but there is some boat-building, besides rope-and-sail making, manure works, saw-mills and oilcake mills. A stone bridge across the Deveron communicates with Banff. Good bathing facilities, a bracing climate and a mineral well attract numerous visitors to Macduff every summer. The burgh unites with Banff, Cullen, 'Elgin, Inverurie, Kintore and Peterhead (the Elgin burghs) in returning one member to parliament.
MCDUFFIE, GEORGE (1788-1851), American political leader, was born in Columbia county, Georgia. He was admitted to the bar in 1814, and served in the South Carolina General Assembly in 1818-1821, and in the national House of Representatives in 1821-1834. In 1821 he published a pamphlet in which strict construction and states' rights were strongly denounced; yet in 1832 there were few more uncompromising nullificationists. The change seems to have been gradual, and to have been determined in part by the influence of John C. Calhoun. When, after 1824, the old Democratic-Republican party split into factions, he followed AndrewJackson and Martin Van Buren in opposing the Panama Congress and the policy of making Federal appropriations for internal improvements. He did not hesitate, however, to differ from Jackson on the two chief issues of his administration: the Bank and nullification. In 1832 he was a prominent member of the South Carolina Nullification Convention, and drafted its address to the people of the United States. He served as governor in 1834-1836, during which time he -helped to reorganize South Carolina- College.) From January 1843 until January 1846 he was a member of the United States Senate. The leading Democratic measures of those years all received his hearty support. McDuffie, like Calhoun, became an eloquent champion of state sovereignty; but while Calhoun emphasized state action as the only means of redressing a grievance, McDuffie paid more attention to the grievance itself. Influenced in large measure by Thomas Cooper, he made it his special work to convince the people of the South that the downfall of protection was essential to their material progress. His argument that it is the producer who really pays the duty of imports has been called the economic basis of nullification. He died at Cherry Hill, Sumter district, South Carolina, on the 11th of March 1851.
MACE (Fr. masse, 0. Fr. mace, connected with Lat. 'mateola, a mallet), originally a weapon of offence, made of iron, steel or latten, capable of breaking through the strongest armour. The earliest ceremonial maces, as they afterwards became, though at first intended to protect the king's person, were those borne by the sergeants-at-arms, a royal body-guard established in 'France by Philip II., and in England probably by Richard I. -By the 14th century a tendency towards a more decorative serjeant's mace, encased with precious metals, is noticeable. The history of the civic mace (carried by the sergeants-at-mace) begins about
- The mace was carried in battle by medieval bishops (Oda of Bayeux is represented on the Bayeux tapestry as wielding one) instead of the sword, so as to conform to the canonical I'Lll€ which forbade priests to shed blood.-[ED.]