gun is best employed in enabling relatively small forces to advance-not to assault-without undue loss, that is, in economizing rilies along the non-decisive front.1
Withal, there are certain principles, or rather details of principle, that find general acceptance. One of these is the employment of machine-guns with the advanced guard. In this case the value of the weapon lies in its enabling the advanced guard both to seize favourable ground and points of support without undue effort and to hold the positions gained against the enemy's counter-attack. This applies, further, to the preliminary stages of an action? Another point is that as a rule the most favourable range for the machine-gun is “effective infantry, ” i.e. 600-1400 yards (which is, mutatis mutandis, the principle of Reffye's mitrailleuse). Its employment at close infantry range depends entirely on conditions of ground and circumstances-even supposing that the handiest and most inconspicuous type of weapon is employed. Thirdlyand this has a considerable bearing on the other points-the machine-gun both concentrates many rifles on a narrow front, and concentrates the bullets of many rifles on a narrow front. The first clause implies that it can be used where there is no room (physically or tactically) for the hfty or eighty riflemen it represents (as, for instance, in some slight patch of cover whence the gun can give effective cross-fire in support of the infantry attack, or in front of an advanced post, or can watch an exposed flank), and, further, that it can be swung round laterally on to a fresh target far more easily than a line of excited and extended infantry can be made to change front. The second means that the exit of a defile, an exposed turn in a lane or on a bridge, can be beaten by closely grouped fire at greater distances and with greater accuracy than is attainable with riflemen. Further, the waste of ammunition and the strain on the weapon caused by unnecessarily prolonged firing at the rate for which its mechanism is set-varying between 3 50 and 700 rounds a minute-have caused it to be laid down as an axiom in all armies that machine-guns shall deliver their Ere by “ bursts ” and only on favourable targets.
Lastly, the reports, both of observers and combatants, are unanimous as to the immense moral effect produced on the combatants by the unmistakable drumming sound of the machine-guns, an effect comparable even at certain stages of the tight to the boom of the artillery itself.
Equipments in Use.-Practically all nations have abandoned the simple wheeled carriage for machine-guns, or rather have adopted the tripod or table mounting, reserving the wheeled vehicle for the mere transport of the equipment. Since the Russo-Japanese War the tendency has been to sacrifice the slight protection afforded by the shield in order to reduce visibility. The japanese, who had unprotected field guns and protected machine-guns in the war, found it advisable to reverse this procedure, for reasons that can easily be guessed in the cases of both weapons. Great Britain.-The service machine-gun is the Maxim -303 in., adjusted to a rate of 450 rounds per minute and sighted (except in a few weapons) to 2900 yards. The original patterns weighed 60 lb, and were mounted on wheeled carriages. In the latest pattern, however, the weight of the gun has been reduced to 36 lb. The old Mark I. cavalry Maxim carriage, complete with gun, ammunition, &c., weighed 13 cwt. behind the traces, and the gun was 5 ft. above the ground. It had no limber. The Mark III. cavalry carriage is much lower (3' 6” from the ground to the gun), and the gun carriage and limber together only weigh 13 cwt. Of infantry carriages there were various marks, one of which is shown in fig. 6. Now, however, all mountings for infantry are of the tripod type, transported on wheels or on pack animals, but entirely detachable from the travelling mounting, and in action practically never used except on the tripod. The Mark IV. tripod mounting, of which a 1 The British instructions of August 1909 direct the grouping of guns in the decisive attack (if circumstances and ground favour this course) and their use by sections “ if the brigade is deployed on a wide front, ” i.e. on the non-decisive front; further, that it is often advisable to disperse the sections of the leading battalions and to group those of units in reserve. In any case, while the 2, 4 or 8 guns must be ready to act independently as a special “ arm, ” their normal work is to give the closest support to the neighbouring infantry (battalion in the holding, brigade in the decisive, attack). “ln Germany, however, the tendency is not to make holding attacks but to keep the troops out of harm's way (i.e. too far away for the enemy to counter-attack) until they can strike effectively. sketch is given in fig. 21, weigéis 48 lb. The total weight of the fighting equipment is thus 84 only-an important consideration now that in action the gun is man-carried. The gun can be adjusted to fire at heights varying from 2' 6” to 1' zé” only from the ground; in its lowest position, then, it is a little lower than the head of a man firing lying. All the later infantry machine-gun equipments are for pack transport and have no shields.
The organization of the machine-gun arm is regimental. Each cavalry regiment and each infantry battalion has a section of 2 guns under an officer.
France.—The guns in use are the Puteaux and the Hotchkiss. The unit is the regimental 2-gun section. Four-horsed carriages with limbers are used with cavalry, tripods with the infantry sections. No shields. Weight of the Hotchkiss in use, 50 lb; of the tripod, 70 lb. The Puteaux was lightened and improved in 1909.
Germany.-As already mentioned the German machine-gun units are classed as cavalry “ detachments ” and infantry “ companies." The “ detachment ” or battery consists of 6 guns and 4 wagons, the vehicles being of a light artillery pattern and drawn by four horses. The gun (Maxim) weighs 61 lb, and its fighting carriage 1 IO lb. The “ companies ” have also 6 guns and 4 wagons, but t e equipment is lighter (two-horse), and is not constructed on artillery principles, nor are the guns fired from their carriages as are those of the " detachments.” The weight of the gun is 38 lb, and that of the fighting carriage 75 (some accounts give 53 for the latter), the difference between these weights and those of the mounted equipments, affordin a good illustration of the difference in the tactical requirements ofgthe cavalry and of the infantry types of gun. The fighting carriage is a sort of sledge, which is provided with four legs for fire in the highest osition, but can of course be placed on the ground; the height of the gun, therefore, can be varied from 3' 6” to 1' 6”. The sledges can be dragged across country or carried by men stretcher fashion, and sometimes several sledges are coupled and drawn by a horse.
Japan.-The japanese Hotchkiss, as modihed since the war with Russia, is said to weigh 70 lb, and its tripod mounting 40. Each regiment of infantry has a six-gun battery and each cavalry brigade one of eight guns. Pack transport is used.
Russia.-Since the war eight-gun companies have been formed in the infantry regiments, and each cavalry regiment has been provided with two guns. The var organization is, however, unknown. Both wheel and pack transport are employed for travelling, but the guns are fought from tripods. Early and somewhat heavy patterns of Maxim (with shield) are chiefly used, but a great number of very light guns of the Madsen type have been issued. The Austrian gun is the Schwarzlose, of which some details are given above. Pack transport is used, one mule taking the whole equipment with 1000 rounds. Weight of the gun 37-9 lb, of the tripod 41 Ib. The height of the tripod can be varied from 9% in. to 2 ft. above the ground. It is proposed that each cavalry regiment should have four guns, and each infantry regiment two. Switzerland adopted the Maxim in 1902. It is used principally as a substitute for horse artillery. Denmark and other small states have adopted the Madsen or Rexer light-type guns in relatively large numbers, especially for cavalry. In the United States the British organization was after many trials adopted, and each infantry and cavalry regiment has a two-gun section of Maxims, with tripod mounting and pack transport.
See P. Azan, Les premieres mi trait lenses (“ Revue d' Histoife de l'Armée, ” July 1907); Le Canon fi batles, 1870-1871 (“ Revue d'Hist. de l'Armée, 1909); Lieut-Colonel E. Rogers in “ Journal R. United Service Institution ” of 1905; Capt. R. V. K. Applin, Machine-gun Tactics (London, 1910) and paper in “ ]. R. United Service lnst.” (1910); War Office Handbook to the Maxim gun (1907); Capt. Cesbron Lavau, Mitrailleuses de cavalerie; Lieut. Buttin, L'emploi des mitrailleuses d'infanterie; Major J. Goots, Les Mitrailleuses (Brussels, 1908); and Merkatz, Unterrichtsbuch filr die Masch.-Gewehrabteilungen (Berlin, 1906); Korzen & Kuhn, Wajenlehre, &c. (C. F. A.)
MACÍAS [O NAMORODO] (fl. 1360–1390), Galician trovador, held some position in the household of Enrique de Villena. He is represented by five poems in the Cancianero de Baena, and is the reputed author of sixteen others. Macías lives by virtue of the romantic legends which have accumulated round his name. The most popular version of his story is related by Hernán Nuñez. According to this tradition, Macías was enamoured of a great lady, was imprisoned at Arjonilla, and was murdered by the jealous husband while singing the lady's praises. There may be some basis of fact for this narrative, which became a favourite subject with contemporary Spanish poets and later writers. Macías is mentioned in Rocaberti's Gloria de amor as the Castilian equivalent of Cabestanh; he afforded, a theme to Lope de Vega in Porfiar hasta morir; in the 19th century, at the outset of the romantic movement