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on “The Levirate and Polyandry,” following up the line of his previous investigations (Fortnightly Review, 1877), were the last work he was able to publish. He died of consumption on the 14th of June 1881 at Hayes Common, Kent.

Besides the works already cited, M’Lennan also wrote a Life of Thomas Drummond (1867). The vast materials which he had accumulated on kinship were edited by his widow and A. Platt, under the title Studies in Ancient History: Second Series (1896).

MACLEOD, HENRY DUNNING (1821–1902), Scottish economist, was born in Edinburgh, and educated at Eton, Edinburgh University, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1843. He travelled in Europe, and in 1849 was called to the English bar. He was employed in Scotland on the work of poor-law reform, and devoted himself to the study of economics. In 1856 he published his Theory and Practice of Banking, in 1858 Elements of Political Economy, and in 1859 A Dictionary of Political Economy. In 1873 appeared his Principles of Economist Philosophy, and other books on economics and banking were published later. Between 1868 and 1870 he was employed by the government in digesting and codifying the law of bills of exchange. He died on the 16th of July 1902. Macleod’s principal contribution to the study of economics consists in his work on the theory of credit, to which he was the first to give due prominence.

For a judicious discussion of the value of Macleod’s writings, see an article on "The Revolt against Orthodox Economics" in the ‘’Quarterly Review’’ for October 1901 (no. 388).

MACLEOD, NORMAN (1812–1872), Scottish divine, son of Rev. Norman Macleod (1783–1862), and grandson of Rev. Norman Macleod, minister of Morven, Argyllshire, was born at Campbeltown on the 3rd of June 1812. In 1827 he became a student at Glasgow University, and in 1831 went to Edinburgh to study divinity under Dr Thomas Chalmers. On the 18th of March 1838 he became parish minister at Loudoun, Ayrshire. At this time the troubles in the Scottish Church were already gathering to a head (see Free Church of Scotland). Macleod, although he had no love for lay patronage, and wished the Church to be free to do its proper work, clung firmly to the idea of a national Established Church, and therefore remained in the Establishment when the disruption took place. He was one of those who took a middle course in the non-intrusion controversy, holding that the fitness of those who were presented to parishes should be judged by the presbyteries—the principle of Lord Aberdeen’s Bill. On the secession of 1843 he was offered many different parishes, and having finally settled at Dalkeith, devoted himself to parish work and to questions affecting the Church as a whole. He was largely instrumental in the work of strengthening the Church. In 1847 he became one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance, and from 1849 edited the Christian Instructor (Edinburgh). In 1851 he was called to the Barony church, Glasgow, in which city the rest of his days were passed. There the more liberal theology rapidly made way among a people who judged it more by its fruits than its arguments, and Macleod won many adherents by his practical schemes for the social improvement of the people. He instituted temperance refreshment rooms, a congregational penny savings bank, and held services specially for the poor. In 1860 Macleod was appointed editor of the new monthly magazine Good Words. Under his control the magazine, which was mainly of a religious character, became widely popular. His own literary work, nearly all of which originally appeared in its pages—sermons, stories, travels, poems—was only a byproduct of a busy life. By far his best work was the spontaneous and delightful Reminiscences of a Highland Parish (1867). While Good Words made his name known, and helped the cause he had so deeply at heart, his relations with the queen and the royal family strengthened yet further his position in the country. Never since Principal Carstairs had any Scottish clergyman been on such terms with his sovereign. In 1865 he risked an encounter with Scottish Sabbatarian ideas. The presbytery of Glasgow issued a pastoral letter on the subject of Sunday trains and other infringements of the Sabbath. Macleod protested against the grounds on which its strictures were based. For a time, owing partly to a misleading report of his statement, he became “the man in all Scotland most profoundly distrusted.” But four years later the Church accorded him the highest honour in her power by choosing him as moderator of her general assembly. In 1867, along with Dr Archibald Watson, he was sent to India, to inquire into the state of the missions. He undertook the journey in spite of failing health, and seems never to have recovered from its effects. He returned resolved to devote the rest of his days to rousing the Church to her duty in the sphere of foreign missions, but his health was now broken, and his old energy flagged. He died on the 16th of June 1872, and was buried at Campsie. He was one of the greatest of Scottish religious leaders, a man of wide sympathy and high ideals. His Glasgow church was named after him the “Macleod Parish Church,” and the “Macleod Missionary Institute” was erected by the Barony church in Glasgow. Queen Victoria gave two memorial windows to Crathie church as a testimony of her admiration for his work.

See Memoir of Norman Macleod, by his brother, Donald Macleod (1876)

MACLISE, DANIEL (1806–1870), Irish painter, was born at Cork, the son of a Highland soldier. His education was of the plainest kind, but he was eager for culture, fond of reading, and anxious to become an artist. His father, however, placed him, in 1820, in Newenham’s Bank, where he remained for two years, and then left to study in the Cork school of art. In 1825 it happened that Sir Walter Scott was travelling in Ireland, and young Maclise, having seen him in a bookseller’s shop, made a surreptitious sketch of the great man, which he afterwards lithographed. It was exceedingly popular, and the artist became celebrated enough to receive many commissions for portraits, which he executed, in pencil, with very careful treatment of detail and accessory. Various influential friends perceived the genius and promise of the lad, and were anxious to furnish him with the means of studying in the metropolis; but with rare independence he refused all aid, and by careful economy saved a sufficient sum to enable him to leave for London. There he made a lucky hit by a sketch of the younger Kean, which, like his portrait of Scott, was lithographed and published. He entered the Academy schools in 1828, and carried off the highest prizes open to the students. In 1829 he exhibited for the first time in the Royal Academy. Gradually he began to confine himself more exclusively to subject and historical pictures, varied occasionally by portraits of Campbell, Miss Landon, Dickens, and other of his literary friends. In 1833 he exhibited two pictures which greatly increased his reputation, and in 1835 the “Chivalric Vow of the Ladies and the Peacock” procured his election as associate of the Academy, of which he became full member in 1840. The years that followed were occupied with a long series of figure pictures, deriving their subjects from history and tradition and from the works of Shakespeare, Goldsmith and Le Sage. He also designed illustrations for several of Dickens’s Christmas books and other works. Between the years 1830 and 1836 he contributed to Fraser’s Magazine, under the pseudonym of Alfred Croquis, a remarkable series of portraits of the literary and other celebrities of the time—character studies, etched or lithographed in outline, and touched more or less with the emphasis of the caricaturist, which were afterwards published as the Maclise Portrait Gallery (1871). In 1858 Maclise commenced one of the two great monumental works of his life, the “Meeting of Wellington and Blücher,” on the walls of Westminster Palace. It was begun in fresco, a process which proved unmanageable. The artist wished to resign the task; but, encouraged by Prince Albert, he studied in Berlin the new method of “water-glass” painting, and carried out the subject and its companion, the “Death of Nelson,” in that medium, completing the latter painting in 1864. The intense application which he gave to these great historic works, and various circumstances connected with the commission, had a serious effect on the artist’s health. He began to shun the company in which he formerly delighted; his old buoyancy of