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Since 1897 high schools, and 'medical and technical schools, and a few primary schools, have been formed by the French government; and all other schools have been placed under regulations issued by an educational department, the scholars being required to learn the French language; but until the end of 1906 the bulk of the educational work was carried on by the various missions. At that date the anti-elerical movement in France began to affect Madagascar. In all the missions the churches had, in the vast majority of cases, been used as school-houses, but in November 1906 it was strictly forbidden to use churches for educational purposes after two months from that date; and the effect of the decree, with other provisions, was to close hundreds of schools, probably three-fourths of the whole number.

For many years (1862-1896), all medical aid to the sick, the formation of hospitals and dispensaries, the training of native doctors, midwives and nurses, and the production of medical literature was entirely due to the Protestant missionaries, viz. the Lond0nMissionary Society, the Friends and the Norwegians. Numbers of young men received a full course of medical and surgical training, and were awarded diplomas after passing strict examinations. This work is llOW mostly in charge of a government department, and mission medical work is much restricted; but for thirty-five years the Malagasy owed all such help to the benevolence of European Christians. Besides care for the sick in ordinary diseases, asylums for lepers were for many years carried on; two by the London Missionary Society, one, a large one, with 800 or 900 inmates, by the Norwegian Society, and another by the Roman Catholic mission. This last, with one of those of the L.M.S., is now taken over by the government. Authorities.”/S regards the scientific aspects of the country, almost everything of value in previous books and papers is included in the magnificent work (1882 et seq.), in 28 4to vols., by Alfred Grandidier, entitled Histoire naturelle, physique, et politique de Jlodagascar. Ilany of the volumes consist of coloured lithograph plates illustrating the natural history of the country, as well as atlases of maps from the earliest period.

General: Etienne de Flacourt, Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar (Paris, 1658); hladagascar, or Robert Drury's Journal during Fifteen Years' Coptiv-ity on that Island (London, 1729; new ed., 1890); Voyages et ménioires de lllaurice Auguste, comte de Benyovvski (Paris, 1791); Froberville, Histoire de Madagascar (Isle de France, 1809); Ellis, History of Madagascar (London, 1838); Guillain, Documents sur . . la partie occidental de Jrladagascar (Paris, 1845); Macé Descartes, Histoire et géographie de llladagascar (Paris, 1846); Ellis, Three Visits to Madagascar (London, 1859); ]. Sibree, Madagascar and its People (London, 1870); Tantara ny Andriana eto Madagascar: Histoirc des rois d'Imérina d'aprés les manuscripts malgaches, (Antananarivo, 1875); Mullens, Twelve Jllonths in Madagascar (London, 1875); Blanchard, L'fle de llfadagascor (Paris, 1875); Dahle, Madogaskar og dets Beboere (Christiania, 1876-1878); Sibree and Baron (eds), The Antananarivo Annual, Nos. i-xxiv. (1875-1900, pp. 3115); Notes, reconnaissances, et explorations, revue mensuelle (Antananarivo, 5 vols., 1897-1899, pp. 3041); Sibree, A Jlladagascar Bibliography (Antananarivo, 1885); Va1ssiére, Histoire de Madagascar (Paris, 1884), Vingt ans d Madagascar (Paris, 1885); Oliver, Madogasctir: an Historical and Descriptive Account (2 vols., London, 1886); Cousins, Madagascar of To-day (London, 1895); Bulletin du comité de llladagascar (monthly) (Paris, 1895, et seq.); Sibree, Jlladagascar before the Conquest (London, 1896); Catat, Voyage d tlladogoscar (Paris, 1895) 2 Annuaire de Madagascar (Antananarivo, 1898, et seq.); J. S. Gallieni; Rapport d'ensemble sur la situation "énérale de Jlladagascrtr (2 vols., Paris, 1899); Revue de Madagascar, mensuelle, illustréc (1895, et seq.); Guide de Vimmigrant Li Madagascar (3 vols., with atlas, Paris, 1899); C0llection des anciens ouvrages relatifs d llladagascar, par les soins du comité de lldadagascar (a collection and translation of all works relating to the island from 1500 to 1800, in 10 vols.), (Paris, 1899 et seq.); Bulletin trimestriel de t'acadérnie de Malgache (uarrerly) (Antananarivo, 1902 et seq.); G. Grandidier et autres, (llladagascar au début du xx” siécle (Paris, 1902); G. Grandidier, Bibliographic de Madagascar (2 vols., Paris, 1905 and 1907).

Political: Sibree, “ Vl/'hat are ' French Claims ' on Madagascar?" Aladagasmr Tracts (1882); Oliver, True Story of the French Dispute in illadagascar (London, 1885); Shaw, Madagascar and France (London, 1885); Saillens, Nos droits sur Madagascar (Paris, 1885); K. Blind “ The Fictitious French Claim to Madagascar, " Contemp. Rev. (1894); hlartineau, Etude de politique conternporaine. Madagascar (Paris, 1894); Rentier, Les droits de la France sur Madagascar (1895); Corlay, Notre campagne fi Madagascar(Paris, 1896); Knight. Madagascar in War-time (London, 1896); Carol, Chez les Hovas (Paris, 1898); Gallieni, Neuf ans d .Madagascar (Paris, 1908). Phitotogy: Houtman, Spraak ende woord boek in de Maleische ende llludagaskarsclle tolen (Amsterdam, 1603); Voyage de C. van Ileemskcrk; vocabulaire de la langue parlée dans l'Tle Saint-Laurent (Amsterdam, 1603) llegiser, Beschreibung der Mechtigen und Weilberhitmbtcn Insul Jrladagascar, with dictionary and dialogues (Altenburg, 1609); Arthus, Colloqu' latino-maleyica et madagascarica (Frankfort, 1 613); Challand, Vocabitlaire français-malgache et rnalgache-français (Ile de France, 1773); Froberville, Dictionnaire français-rnadécasse (3 vols., lle de France, 1809); Freeman and Johns, Dictionary of the Malagasy Language(Eng.-Mal. and Mat.-Eng.), (Antananarivo, 1835); Dalmond, Vocabulaire et grammaire pour les tongues malgaches, Srikalava et Bétsimisdra (Bourbon, 1842); R. C. Missionaries' Dictionnaire français-malgache (Réunion, 1853); and Dictionnaire malgachefrançais (Réunion, 1855); Van der Tunk, “ Outlines of a Grammar of the Malagasy Language, ” Jour. Roy. Asiat. Soc. (1860); Ailloud, Grammaire malgache-hova (Antananarivo, 1872); W. E. Cousins, Concise Introduction to the Study of the Malagasy Language as spoken in Imérina (Antananarivo, 1873); Marre de Marin, Grommaire malgache (Paris, 1876); id., Essai sur le malgache, on Etude comparée des langues javanaise, malgache. et malayse (Paris, 1876); id., Le Jardin des racines océoniennes (Paris, 1876); Dahle, Specimens of Malagasy Folk-lore (Antananarivo, 1877); and W. E. Cousins, “The Malagasy Language, ” in Trans. Phil. Soc. (1878). Besides these there are several valuable papers by Dahle in the yearly numbers of The Antananarivo Annual (ante) (1876-1877); Richardson, A New Malagasy-English Dictionary (Antananarivo, 1885); Cousins and Parrett, Jllalagasy Proverbs (Antananarivo, 1885); Causseque Grammaire malgache (Antananarivo, 1886); Abinal et Malzac, Dictionnaire malgache-français (Antananarivo, 1889); Brandstetter, “ Die Beziehungen des Malagasy zum Malaiischen, " Malaio-polynesische Forschungen, pt. 2 (Lucerne, 1893).

Missions and Religious History: Freeman and Johns, Narrative of the Persecutions of the Christians in Madagascar (London, 1840); Prout, Madagascar, its Missions and its Martyrs (London, 1863); Ellis, Madagascar Revisited (London, 1867); id., The Martyr Church (London, 1869); “ Religion in Madagascar, ” Ch. Quar. Rev. (1878); Briggs, The Madagascar Mission (L.M.S. 1879); id., Ten Years Review of Mission Work in Madagascar (L.M.S. 1870-1880, 1881); Johnson, Review of Work of the Friends' Foreign Mission Association in Madagascar, 1867-1880 (Antananarivo, 1880); Vaissiere, Histoire de Madagascar, ses habit ants et ses missionaires (Paris, 1884); The Church in Illadagascar (S.P.G., 15 years' progress, 1874-1889, 1889); La Liberté religieuse ti, Madagascar (Paris, 1897); Matthews, Thirty Years in Madagascar (London, 1904); Sibree, The L.M.S. Mission in Madagascar (L.M.S. Mission Hand Books, London, 1907); id., “ Christian Missions in Madagascar and French Colonial Policy, " The East and the West (]an. 1909); and General Gallieni's “ Neuf ans 5. Madagascar, Journal of the African Society (April 1909). (]. S1.*)

MADAN, MARTIN (1726-1790), English writer, was educated at Westminster School, and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in 1746. In 1748 he was called to the bar, and for some time lived a very gay life, until he was persuaded to change his ways on hearing a sermon by John Wesley. He took holy orders, and was appointed chaplain to the Lock Hospital, London. He was closely connected with the Calvinistic Methodist movement supported by the countess of Huntingdon, and from time to time acted as an itinerant preacher. He was a first cousin of William Cowper, with whom he had some correspondence on religious matters. In 1767 much adverse comment was aroused by his support of his friend Thomas Haweis in a controversy arising out of the latter's possession of the living of Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire (see Monthly Review, xxxvii. 382, 390,465). In 1780 Madan raised more serious storm of opposition by the publication of his Thelyphthora, or A Treatise on Female Ruin, in which he advocated polygamy as the remedy for the evils he deplored. The author was no doubt sincere in his arguments, which he based chiefly on scriptural- authority; but his book Called forth many angry replies. Nineteen attacks on it are catalogued by Falconer Madan in Dict. Nat. Biog. Madan resigned his chaplain ship and retired to Epsom, Where he produced, among other works, A New and Literal Translation of Juvenal and Persius (1789). He died on the 2nd of May 1790,

MADDALONI, a town of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, about 3½ m. S.E. of Caserta, with station son the railways from Caserta to Benevento and from Caserta to Avellino, 200 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901), 19,778 (town); 21,270 (commune). It is prettily situated at the base of one of the Tifata hills, the towers of its medieval castle and the church of San Michele crowning the heights above. The fine old palaceof the Caraffa family, once dukes of Maddaloni, the old college now named after Giordano Bruno, and the institute for the sons of soldiers are the chief points of interest. About 2½ m. east of Valle di Maddaloni, the Ponte della Valle, an aqueduct built by the orders of Charles III. of Naples and his son to convey the water of the Tiburno to Caserta (19 m.), is carried across the valley between Monte Longano and Monte Gargano by a threefold series of noble arches rising to a height of 210 ft. The work was