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climate, in spite of the presence of the reindeer. The fauna of the Madelenian epoch seems, indeed, to have included tigers and other tropical species side by side with reindeer, blue foxes, Arctic hares and other polar creatures. Madelenian man appears to have been of low stature, dolichocephalic, with low retreating forehead and prominent brow ridges. Besides La Madeleine the chief stations of the epoch are Les Eyzies, Laugerie Basse, and Gorge d'Enfer in Dordogne; Grotte du Placard in Charente and others in south-west France.

See G. de Mortillet, Le Préhistorique (1900); Edouard Lartet and Henry Christy, Reliquiae Aquitanicae (1865–1875); Edouard Dupont, Le Temps préhistorique en Belgique (1872); Lord Avebury, Prehistoric Times (1900).

MADELEY, a market town in the municipal borough of Wenlock, and the Wellington (Mid) parliamentary division of Shropshire, England, 159 m. N.W. from London, with stations on the London 81 North Western (Madeley Market) and Great Western railways (Madeley Court). Pop. of civil parish (1901), 8442. There are large ironworks, ironstone and coal are mined, and potter's clay is raised. The church of St Michael (1796) replaced a Norman building. The living was held from 1760 to 1783 by John William Fletcher or de la Flechére, a close friend of the Wesleys. The parish includes a portion of Coalbrookdale (q.v.), and the towns of Ironbridge and Coalport. Ironbridge, a town picturesquely situated on the steep left bank of the Severn, adjoins Madeley on the south-west. It takes its name from the iron bridge of one span crossing the river, erected in 1779. This bridge is a remarkable work considering its date; it was probably the first erected, at any rate on so large a scale, and attracted great attention. It is the work of Abraham Darby, the third of the name, one of the famous family of iron-workers in Coalbrookdale. Here are brick and tile works and lime-kilns. There is a station (Ironbridge and Broseley) on the Great Western railway, across the river. Coalport lies also on the Severn, S. of Madeley and 2 m. S.E. of Ironbridge, with a station on the Great Western railway. It has large china works, founded at the close of the 18th century, which subsequently incorporated those of Caughley, across the Severn, and of Nantgarw in Glamorganshire.

MADHAVA ACHKRYA (/Z. c. 1380), Hindu statesman and philosopher, lived at the court of Vijayanagar (the modern Humpi in the district of Bellary), the vigorous Southern Hindu kingdom that so long withstood Mahommedan influence and aggression. His younger brother Sayana (d. 1387) was associated with him in the administration and was a famous commentator on the Rigveda. Siiyana's commentaries were influenced by and dedicated to Madhava, who is best known as the author of the Sarvadarsana Samgraha (Compendium of Speculations). With remarkable mental detachment he places himself in the position of an adherent of sixteen distinct systems. Madhava also wrote a commentary on the Mimarnsa Sutras. He died as abbot of the monastery of Sringeri.

MADI (A-MAD1), a negro race of the Nile valley, occupying both banks of the Bahr-el-]ebel immediately north of Albert Nyanza. Tradition makes them immigrants from the northwest. They are remarkable for the consideration shown to their women, who choose their own husbands, are never ill-treated or hard-worked, and take part in tribal deliberations. The Madi build sepulchral monuments of an elaborate type, two huge narrow stones sloping towards each other with two smaller slabs covering the opening between them. They have been much harried by the Azandeh and Abarambo. They were visited by W. Iunker in 1882-1883, and described by him in Pelermamfs Mitlheilungen for May 1883.

MADISON, JAMES (1751-1836), fourth president of the United States, was born at Port Conway, in King George county, Virginia, on the 16th of March 1751. His first ancestor in America may possibly have been Captain Isaac Maddyson, a colonist of 1623 mentioned by John Smith as an excellent Indian fighter. His father, also named lames Madison, was the owner of large estates in Orange county, Virginia. In 1769 the son entered the college of New Jersey (now Princeton University), where, in the same year, he founded the well-known literary club, “The American Whig Society.” ~ He graduated in 1771, but remained for another year at Princeton studying, apparently for the ministry, under the direction of John Witherspoon (1722-1794). In 1772 he returned to Virginia, where he pursued his reading and studies, especially theology and Hebrew, and acted as a tutor to the younger children of the family. In 177 5 he became chairman of the committee of public safety for Orange county, and wrote its response to Patrick Henry's call for the arming of a colonial militia, and in the spring of 1776 he was chosen a delegate to the new Virginia convention, where he was on the committee which drafted the constitution for the state, and proposed an amendment (not adopted) which declared that “ all men are equally entitled to the full and free exercise ” of religion, and was more radical than the similar one offered by George Mason. In 1777, largely, it seems, because he refused to treat the electors with rum and punch, after the custom of the time, he was not reelected, but in November of the same year he was chosen a member of the privy council or council of state, in which he acted as interpreter for a few months, as secretary prepared papers for the governor, and in general took a prominent part from the 14th of January 1778 until the end of 1779, when he was elected a delegate to the Continental Congress. He was in Congress during the final stages of the War of Independence, and in 1780 drafted instructions to Jay, then representing the United States at Madrid, that in negotiations with Spain he should insist upon the free navigation of the Mississippi and upon the principle that the United States succeeded to British rights affirmed by the treaty of Paris of 1763. When the confederation was almost in a state of collapse because of the failure of the states to respond to requisitions of Congress for supplies for the federal treasury, Madison was among the first to advocate the granting of additional powers to Congress, and urged that congress should forbid the states to issue more paper money. In 1781 he favoured an amendment 'of the Articles of Confederation giving Congress power to enforce its requisitions, and in 1783, in spiteof the open opposition of the Virginia legislature, which considered the Virginian delegates wholly subject to its instructions, he advocated that the states should grant to Congress for twenty-five years authority to levy an import duty, and suggested a scheme to provide for the interest on the debt not raised by the import duty-apportioning it among the states on the basis of population, counting three-fifths of the slaves, a ratio suggested by Madison himself. Accompanying this plan was an address to the states drawn up by Madison, and one of the ablest of his state papers. In the same year, with Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, Nathaniel Gorham of Massachusetts, Gunning Bedford of Delaware, and John Rutledge of South Carolina, he was a member of the committee which reported on the Virginia proposal as to the terms of cession to the Confederation of the “ back lands, ” or unoccupied Western territory, held by several of the states; the report was a skilful compromise made by Madison, which secured the approval of the rather exigent Virginia legislature.

In November 1783 Madison's term in Congress expired, and he returned to Virginia and took up the study of the law. In the following year he was elected to the House of Delegates. As a member of its committee on religion, he opposed the giving of special privileges to the Episcopal (or any other) church, and contended against a general assessment for the support of the churches of the state. His petition of remonstrance against the proposed assessment, drawn up at the suggestion of George Nicholas (c. 1755-1799), was widely circulated and procured its defeat. On the 26th of December 1785 Iefferson's Bill for establishing religious freedom in Virginia, which had been introduced by Madison, was passed. In the Viginia House of Delegates, as in the Continental Congress, he opposed the further issue of paper money; and he tried to induce the legislature to repeal the law confiscating British debts, but he did not lose sight of the interests of the Confederacy. The boundary between Virginia and Maryland, according to the Baltimore grant, was the south shore of the Potomac, a line to which Virginia had agreed on condition of free