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mixture of ease and dignity in his address.” Her son, spoiled by his mother and his step-father, became a wild young fellow and added his debts to the heavy burden of Montpelier upon Madison.

Madison's portrait was painted by Gilbert Stuart and by Charles Willson Peale; Giuseppe Ceracchi made a marble bust of him in 1792 and John H. J. Browere another in 1827, now in possession of the Virginia Historical Society at Richmond. Though commonly dignified and a little stiff he seems to have had a strong sense of humour and he was fond of telling a good story. Henry Clay, contrasting him with Jefferson, said that Jefferson had more genius, Madison more judgment and common sense; that Jefferson was a visionary and a theorist; Madison cool, dispassionate, practical and safe.[1] The broadest and most accurate scholar among the “founders and fathers,” he was particularly an expert in constitutional history and theory. In the great causes for which Madison fought in his earlier years religious freedom and separation of church and state, the free navigation of the Mississippi, and the adoption of the constitution he met with success. His greatest and truest fame is as the “father of the constitution.” The “commercial weapons” with which he wished to prevent armed conflict proved less useful in his day than they have since been in international disputes.

Authorities. — Madison's personality is perplexingly vague; the biographies of him are little more than histories of the period, and the best history of the later period in which he was before the public, Henry Adams's History of the United States from 1801 to 1817 (1889-1890), gives the clearest sketch and best criticism of him. The lives of Madison are: J. Q. Adams's (Boston, 1850); W. C. Rives's (Boston, 1859-1869, 3 vols.), covering the period previous to 1797; S. H. Gay's (Boston, 1884) in the “American Statesmen Series”; and Gaillard Hunt's (New York, 1902). Madison's Writings (7 vols., New York, 1900-1906) were edited by Hunt, who also edited The Journal of the Debates in the Convention which framed the Constitution of the United States, as Recorded by James Madison (2 vols., New York, 1908). See also Mrs Madison's Memoirs and Letters (Boston, 1887) and Maud Wilder Goodwin, Dolly Madison (New York, 1897).

MADISON, a city and the county-seat of Jefferson county, Indiana, U.S.A., on the N. bank of the Ohio river, about 90 m. below Cincinnati, and 44 m. above Louisville, Kentucky. Pop. (1870), 10,709; (1800), 8936; (1900), 7835 (554 foreign-born and 570 negroes); (1910), 6934. Madison is served by the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis railroad and by river steamboats. The city is picturesquely situated on bluffs above the river and has two public parks. In Madison are a King's Daughters' Hospital, a children's home, and the Drusilla home for old ladies, and immediately north of the city are the buildings of the Indiana South-eastern Insane Hospital. Madison is a trading centre of the surrounding farming region, whose principal products are burley tobacco, grain and fruits (peaches, apples, pears, plums and small fruits). The municipality owns and operates the waterworks. Madison was settled about the beginning of the 19th century; was incorporated as a town in 1824, and was first chartered as a city in 1836.

MADISON, a borough of Morris county, New Jersey, U.S.A., 27 m. (by rail) W. of New York City and 4 m. S.E. of Morristown. Pop. (1890), 2469; (1900), 3754, of whom 975 were foreign-born and 300 were negroes; (1905), 4115; (1910), 4658; It is served by the Morris & Essex division of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railroad. The borough is attractively situated among the hills of Northern New Jersey, is primarily a residential suburb of New York and Newark, and contains many fine residences. There are a public library and, a beautiful public park, both given to the borough by Daniel Willis James (1832-1907), a prominent metal manufacturer; the library is closely allied with the public schools. Madison is the seat of the well known Drew theological seminary (Methodist Episcopal; founded in 1866 and opened in 1867), named in honour of Daniel Drew (1788-1879), who, having acquired great wealth from steamboat and railway enterprises, especially from trading in railway stocks, presented the large and beautiful grounds and most of the buildings. The seminary's course covers three years; no fee is charged. In connexion with the seminary the Drew settlement in New York City—officially the department of applied Christianity—has for its object the “practical study of present-day problems in city evangelism, church organization, and work among the poor.” In 1907-1908 the seminary had 9 instructors, 175 students, and a library of more than 100,000 volumes, especially rich in works dealing with the history of Methodism and in Greek New Testament manuscripts. About 2 m. N.W. of Madison is Convent Station, the seat of a convent of the Sisters of Charity, who here conduct the college of St Elizabeth, for girls, founded in 1859; also conducted by the Sisters of Charity is St Joseph's preparatory school for boys, founded in 1862. The cultivation of roses and chrysanthemums is practically the only industry of Madison. Madison owns and operates its waterworks and electric-lighting plant. Before 1844 when it took its present name (in honour of President Madison), Madison was called Bottle Hill; it is one of the older places of the state, and its first church (Presbyterian) was built about 1748. The borough was incorporated in 1889.

MADISON, the capital of Wisconsin, U.S.A., and the county seat of Dane County, situated between Lakes Mendota and Monona in the south central part of the state, about 82 m. W. of Milwaukee and about 131 m. N.W. of Chicago. Pop. (1890), 13,426; (1900) 19,164, of whom 3362 were foreign-born and 69 were negroes; (1910 census) 25,531. Madison is served by the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, and the Illinois Central railways (being the northern terminus of the last), and by interurban electric lines, connecting with Janesville, Beloit and Chicago. It has a picturesque situation in what is known as “the Four-Lakes region”; this region takes its name from a chain of lakes Kegonsa, Waubesa, Monona and Mendota, which, lying in the order named and connected with one another by the Yahara or Catfish River, form the head-waters of Rock river flowing southward through Illinois into the Mississippi. The city occupies a hilly isthmus about a mile wide between Lakes Mendota and Monona, bodies of water of great clearness and beauty, with bottoms of white sand and granite.

The state capitol is in a wooded park at the summit of a hill 85 ft. high in the centre of the city. From this park the streets and avenues radiate in all directions. The capitol, built in 1860-1867 (with an addition in 1883) on the site of the original capitol building (1837-1838), was partially destroyed by fire in 1904, and in 1909-1910 was replaced by a larger edifice. The principal business portion of the city is built about the capitol park and the university. Among the public buildings on or near the park are the federal building, housing the post office and the United States courts, the city hall, the Dane county court-house, the public library, the Fuller opera-house, the county gaol, and the high school. Running directly west from the capitol is State Street, at the western end of which lie the grounds of the university of Wisconsin (q.v.), occupying a hilly wooded tract of 300 acres, and extending for a mile along the south shore of Lake Mendota. University Hill, on which the main building of the university stands, is 125 ft. above the lake; at its foot stands the magnificent library building of the State Historical Society. In it, in addition to the interesting and valuable historical museum and art gallery, are the Society's library of more than 350,000 books and pamphlets, the university library of 150,000 volumes, and the library of the Wisconsin academy of arts and sciences, 5000 volumes. Other libraries in the city include the state law library (45,000 volumes) in the capitol, the Madison public library (22,500 volumes), and the Woodman astronomical library (7500 volumes). The Madison public library houses also the state library school maintained by the Wisconsin library commission. Connected with the university is the Washburn observatory. On the margin of the city lies the extensive experimental farm of the state college of agriculture. In addition to the state university, Madison is the seat of several Roman Catholic and Lutheran parochial schools, two business schools, and the Wisconsin academy, a non-sectarian preparatory school of high grade. On the banks of Lake Monona are the beautiful grounds of the Monona Lake assembly, a summer assembly

  1. Clay's opinion is given in a report written by Mrs Samuel H. Smith of a conversation in 1829 between Clay and her husband, a prominent politician.