between the pole pieces. Two groups of observations were recorded,
one giving the induction in the inner coil and the other that in the
outer coil. The value of the residual induction which persisted
when the bobbin was drawn out was added to that of the induction
measured, and thus the total induction in the iron was determined.
The highest induction reached in these experiments was 45,350 units,
more than twice the value of any previously recorded. The corresponding
intensity of the outside field was 24,500, but, owing to
the wide angle of the cones used (about 2X63°), this was probably
reater than the value of the magnetic force within the metal. The
following table shows some results of other experiments in which
H was believed to have sensibly the same value inside as outside the
metal. Values of I are derived from (B H)/41r and of 11 from B/H.
O
z
Hard Cast Swedish Q;
Cobalt Nickel T of Steel Iron Iron:pl
1 A w 1 A I A I A

Sws Sliru» e7§§ :°s> 555% 5:f>f>°f>r I tbigbi, bboolsis <, ¢..om ~oro>ui oo»>oO+> (, ,4;<; Qqx>4>N f.NO'lI»1 OOUU ®UO© oooo ooOoo ooooo OOOO 00000
CNCAQJIQN OJOJNN ~P5C:JNI)
S<»'35'<=<7 5550s sf4r:<>s» .~99°9 rf=9>':° Us hbobob bb~€o1>T o0<nco6 oo »000.¢o evo .a> o >vr~>v°° <M>~' 4>'°"HU 5000 ooogo ooooo oooo ooooo
nurevilu Hunann >qv¢»¢»44
oimrom 6>l>P<.»>r.~» Oo<.n<.n<.n »¢»<~>r~> IllOC oo <» oorooooo >5'S%°3
83888 38°“é'E>'% 0050 00000
A v
on>~ »»>'~><»> *°'°*°'°4> ""1"°"°? '?'°°?"i"'E' 1; " sp' 000 4> o»<01>>
S$'€»U %§ <f]='~g3 33805 oo»~c:o or~>c> These results are of extreme interest, for under sufficiently strong magnetizing forces magnetization I reaches a maximum value they show that
the intensity of
as required by
W. E. Weber's theory of molecular magnetism. There appears to be no definite limit to the value to which the induction B may be raised, but the magnetization I attains a true saturation value under magnetizing forces which are in most cases comparatively moderate. Thus the magnetization which the sample of Swedish iron received in a field of I4QO was not increased (beyond the limits of experimental error) when the intensity of the field was multiplied more than thirteenfold, though the induction was nearly doubled. When the saturation value of I has been reached, the relation of magnetic induction to magnetic force may be expressed by B = H lconstant.
The annexed table gives the saturation values of I for the particular metals examincd by Ewing and Low:
Saturation
Value of I
Wrought iron I,7O0
Cast iron 1,240
Nickel (o75 % iron) . 515
(o 56 %, ,) ..... 400
Cobalt (1~66%, ,) .. .. 1,300
It is shown in the paper that the greatest possible force which the isthmus method can apply at a point in the axis of the bobbin is F=11~137 I, logm b/a,
I, being the saturation value of the magnet poles, a the radius of the neck on which the cones converge, and b the radius of the bases of the cones.
Some experiments made by H. du Bois (Phil. Mag., 1890, 29, 293) with an electromagnet specially designed for the production of strong fields, confirm Ewing's results for iron, nickel and cobalt. The method employed did not admit of the production of such high magnetizing forces, but was of special interest in that both B and I were measured opticallyB by means of the rotation of a polarized ray inside a glass plate, as before described, and I by the rotation of a polarized ray reflected from the polished surface of the magnetized metal (see " Kerr's constant, ” MAGNETOOPTICS). H(= B 41I) was calculated from corresponding values of I and B. Taylor ]ones (Wied. Ann., 1896,57, 258, and Phil. Mag., 1896, 41, 153), working with du Bois's electromagnet and using a modification of the isthmus method, succeeded in pushing the induction B up to 74,200 with H=51,600, the corresponding value of I being 1798, and of, u only I~44. The diameter of the isthmus was 0241 mm., and the electromagnet was excited by a current of 40 amperes. Tractive Force of a M agnet.Closely connected with the results just discussed is the question what is the greatest tractive force that can be exerted by a magnet. In the year 1852 ]. P. ]oule (Phil. Mag., 1852, 3, 32) expressed the opinion that no “ force of current could give an attraction equal to 200 lb per sq. in., ” or 14,000 grms. per square centimetre, and a similar view prevailed among high authorities more than twenty years later. For the greatest possible “ lifting power” of permanent magnets this estimate is probably not very far from the truth, but it is now clearly understood that the force which can be exerted by an electromagnet, or by a pair of electromagnets with opposite poles in contact, is only limited by the greatest value to which it is practically possible to raise the magnetizing force H. This is at once evident when the tractive force due to magnetization is expressed as 27fI2+HI. For fields of moderate intensity the first term of the expression is the more important, but when the value of H exceeds 12,000 or thereabouts, the second preponderates, and with the highest values that have been actually obtained, HI is several times greater than 21l'12. If H could be increased without limit, so also could the tractive force. The following table shows the greatest “ lifting powers ” experimentally reached at the dates mentioned:
Observer. Date.
loule 123 175 1852
Bidwell . 159 226 1886
Wilde 268 381 1891
T. Jones 1149 1634 1896
5. MAGNETIZATION IN VERY WEAK FIELDS
Some interesting observations have been made of the effects produced by very small magnetic forces. It was 'first pointed out by C. Baur (Wied. Ann., 1880, 11, 399) that inweak fields the relation of the magnetization I to the rnagnetizing force H is approximately expressed by an equation of the form
I =aH+bH2,
or »<=I/H=a+bH,
whence it appears that within the limits of Baur's experiments the magnetization curve is a parabola, and the susceptibility curve an inclined straight line, K being therefore a known function of H. If these equations could be assumed to hold when H is indefinitely small, it would follow that IC has a finite initial value, from which there would be no appreciable deviation in fields so weak that bH was negligibly small in comparison with a. Such an assumption could not, however, without dangerous extrapolation, be founded upon the results of Baur's experiments, which did not go far enough to justify it. In some experiments carried out in 1887, Lord Rayleigh (Phil. Mag., 1887, 23, 225) approached very much more nearly than Baur to the zero of magnetic force. Ilsingf an unannealed Swedish iron wire, he found that when H was gradually diminished from oo4 to O'OOOO4 C.G.S. unit, the ratio of magnetization to magnetizing force remained sensibly constant at 64, wihch may therefore with great probability be assumed to represent the initial value of lc for the specimen in question. Experiments with annealed iron gave less satisfactory results, on account of the slowness with which the metal settled down into a new magnetic state, thus causing a “ drift ” of the magnetometer needle, which sometimes persisted for several seconds. Apart from this complication, it appeared that I was proportional to H when the value of H was less than o02.