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the current passes from the fixed to the free end, then the direction of the resulting magnetization will be such as to make the free end a north pole. The twist effect exhibited by iron under moderate longitudinal magnetization has been called by Knott a positive Wiedemann effect; if the twist were reversed, the other conditions remaining the same, the sign of the Wiedemann effect would be negative. An explanation of the twist has been given by Maxwell (Electricity and Magnetism, § 448). The wire is subject to two superposed magnetization's, the one longitudinal, the other circular, due to the current traversing the wire; the resultant magnetization is consequently in the direction of a screw or spiral round the wire, which will be right-handed or left-handed according as the relation between the two magnetization's is right-handed or left-handed; the magnetic expansion or contraction of the metal along the spiral lines of magnetization produces the Wiedemann twist. Iron (moderately magnetized) expands along the lines of magnetization, and therefore for a right-handed spiral exhibits aright-handed twist. This explanation was not accepted by Wiedemann,1 who thought that the effect was accounted for by molecular friction. Now nickel contracts instead of lengthening when it is magnetized, and an experiment by Knott showed, as he expected, that caeteris paribus a nickel wire twists in a sense opposite to that in which iron twists. The Wiedemann effect being positive for iron is negative for nickel. Further, although iron lengthens in fields of moderate strength, it contracts in strong ones; and if the wire is stretched, contraction occurs with smaller magnetizing forces than if it is unstretched. Bidwellz accordingly found upon trial that the Wiedemann twist of an iron wire vanished when the magnetizing force reached a certain high value, and was reversed when that value was exceeded; he also found that the vanishing point was reached with lower values of the magnetizing force when the wire was stretched by a weight. These observations have been verified and extended by Knott, whose researches have brought to light a large number of additional facts, all of which are in perfect harmony with Maxwell's explanation of the twist.-Maxwell

has also given an explanation of the converse effect, namely, the production of longitudinal magnetization by twisting a wire when circularly magnetized by a, current passing through it. When the wire is free from twist, the magnetization at any point P is in the tangential direction PB (see fig. 26). Suppose the wire to be fixed at the top and twisted at the bottom in the direction of the arrow-head T; then the element of the wire at P will be stretched in the direction Pe and compressed in the direction Pr. But tension and compression produce opposite changes in the magnetic susceptibility; if the metal is iron and its magnetization is below the Villari critical point, its susceptibility will be greater along Pe than along Pr; the direction of the magnetization therefore tends to approach Pe and to recede from Pr, changing, in consequence of the twist, to some such direction as PB', which has a vertical component downwards; hence the lower and upper ends will respectively acquire north and south polarity, which will disappear when the wire is untwisted. This effect has never been actually reversed in iron, probably, as suggested by Ewing, because the strongest practicable circular fields fail to raise the components of the magnetization along Pe and Pr up to the Villari critical value. Nagaoka and Honda have approached very closely to a reversal, and consider that it would occur if a sufficiently strong current could be applied without undue heating.

One other effect of torsion remains to be noticed. If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire. The explanation given of the last described phenomenon will with 1







—, I -~- ~..

FIG. 26.

from PB

of the aeolotropy produced by the twist. There are then three remarkable effects of torsion:

A A wire magnetized longitudinally and circularly becomes twisted.

B. Twisting a circularly magnetized wire produces longitudinal magnetization.

C. Twisting a longitudinally magnetized wire produces circular magnetization.

it has been shown earlier that-Magnetization produces change of length.

E. Longitudinal stress produces change of magnetization. Each of these five effects may occur in two opposite senses. Thus in A the twist may be right-handed or left-handed; in B the polarity of a given end may become north or south; in C the circular magnetization may be clockwise or counter-clockwise; in D the length may be increased or diminished; in E the magnetization may become stronger or weaker. And, other conditions remaining unchanged, the “ sense ” of any effect depends upon the nature of the metal under test, and (sometimes) upon the intensity of its magnetization. Let each of the effects A, B, C, D and E be called positive when it is such as is exhibited by moderately magnetized iron, and negative when its sense is opposite. Then the results of a large number of investigations may be briefly summarized as follows:



(W)=weakly ma netized. (S =stron l ma netized. Metal. g Ejects.) Sigh. g

Iron (W) .... A, B, C, D, E +

Unannealed Cobalt (S) A, D, E +.

Nickel-Steel (W) . A, D, E -l-Nickel

A, B, C, D, E-Annealed

Cobalt . D, E-Iron

(S) .... A, C, D, E-Unannealed

Cobalt A, D, E-Several

gaps remain to be filled, but the results so far recorded can leave no doubt that the ive effects, varied as they may at first sight appear, are intimately connected with one another. For each of the metals tabulated in the first column all the effects hitherto observed have the same sign; there is no single instance in which some are positive and others negative. Until the mysteries of molecular constitution have been more fully explored, perhaps D may be most properly regarded as the fundamental phenomenon from which the others follow. Nagaoka and Honda have succeeded in showing that the observed relations between twist and magnetization are in qualitative agreement with an extension of Kirchhoti's theory of magnetostriction. The eliects of magnetization upon the torsion of a previously twisted wire, which were first noticed by Wiedemann, ave been further studied by F. ]. Smiths and by G. Moreau! Nagaoka5 has described the remarkable influence of combined torsion and tension upon the magnetic susceptibility of nickel, and has made the extraordinary observation that, unciier certain conditions of stress, the magnetization of a nickel wire may have a direction opposite to that of the magnetizing force.

8. Errncrs or TEMPERATURE UPON MAGNETISM High Temperature.-It has long been known that iron, when raised to a certain “ critical temperature ” corresponding to dull red heat, loses its susceptibility and becomes magnetically indifferent, or, more accurately, is transformed from a ferromagnetic into a paramagnetic body. Recent researches have shown that other imporant changes in its properties occur at the same critical temperature. Abrupt alterations take place in its density, specific heat, thermo-electric quality, electrical conductivity, temperature-coefficient of electrical resistance, and in some at least of its mechanical properties. Ordinary magnetizable iron is in many respects an essentially different substance from the non-magnetizable metal into which it is transformed when its temperature is raised above a certain point (see Brit. Assoc. Report, 1890, 145). The first exact experiments demonstrating the changes which occur in the permeability of iron, “Phil Mag 1891 32 383

the necessary modification apply also to this; it is a consequence 4 C R 'Y Igggi' 122, Qlgé; .lgggy 126, 463 Phil. Mag., 1886. 22, 50. 2 Ibid. 251. l 5 Phil. Mag., 1889, 27, 117.