between 30' and 6o'; while on 75 days it exceeded 60'. Taking each class of disturbances separately, Ellis found, except in the case of his “ minor ” disturbances-those under I0'*3 distinct double annual period, with maxima towards the equinoxes. Subsequently C. Maunder, ” making use of these same data, and of subsequent data up to 1902, put at his disposal by Ellis, came to similar conclusions. Taking all the days with disturbances of declination over 10', and dealing with I5-day periods, he found the maxima of frequency to occur the one a little before the spring equinox, the other apparently after the autumnal equinox; the two minima were found to occur early in June and in January. When the year is divided into three seas0ns-winter (November to February), summer (May to August), and equinox-Maunder's figures lead to the results assigned to Greenwich disturbed days in Table XXXVI. The frequency in winter, it will be noticed, though less than at equinox, is considerably greater than in summer. This greater frequency in winter is only slightly apparent in the disturbances over 6o', but their number is so small that this may be accidental. The next figures in Table XXXVI. relate to highly disturbed days at Kew. The larger relative frequency at Kew in winter as compared to summer probably indicates no real difference from Greenwich, but is simply a matter of definition. The chief criterion at Kew for classifying the days was not so much the mere amplitude of the largest movement, as the general character of the day's curve and its departure from the normal form. The data in Table XXXVI. as to magnetic storms at Greenwich are based on the lists given by Maunder” in the Monthly Notices, R.A.S. A storm may last for any time from a few hours to several days, and during part of its duration the disturbance may not be very large; thus it does not necessarily follow that the frequencies of magnetic storms and of disturbed days will follow the same laws. The table shows, however, that so far as Greenwich is concerned the annual variations in the two cases are closely alike. In addition to mean data for the whole 56 years, 1848 to 1903, Table XXXVI. contains separate data for the 14 years of that period which represented the highest sun-spot frequency, and the 15 years which represented lowest sun-spot frequency. It will be seen that relatively considered the seasonal frequencies of disturbance are more nearly equal in the years of many than in those of few sun-spots. Storms are more numerous as a whole in the years of many sun-spots, and this preponderance is especially true of storms of the largest size. This requires to be borne in mind in any comparisons between larger and smaller storms selected promiscuously from a long period. An 'unduly large proportion of the larger storms will probably come from years of large sun-spot frequency, and there is thus a risk of assigning to differences between the laws obeyed by large and small storms phenomena that are due in whole or in part to differences between the laws followed in years of many and of few sun-spots. The last data in Table XXXVI. are based on statistics for Batavia given by W. van Bemmelen, ” who considers separately the storms which commence suddenly and those which do not. These sudden movements are recorded over large areas, sometimes probably all over the earth, if not absolutely simultaneously, at least too nearly so for differences in the time of occurrence to be shown by ordinary magneto graphs. It is ordinarily supposed that these sudden movements, and the storms to which the serve as precursors, arise from some source extraneous to the eartli, and that the commencement of the movement intimates the arrival, probably in the upper atmosphere, of some form of energy transmitted through space. In the storms which commence gradually the existence of a source external to the earth is not so prominently suggested, and it has been sometimes supposed that there is a fundamental difference between the two classes of storms. Table XXXVI. shows, however, no certain difference in the annual variation at Batavia. At the same time, this possesses much less significance than it would have if Batavia were a station like Greenwich, where the annual variation in magnetic storms is conspicuous.
Besides the annual period, there seems to be also a well-marked diurnal period in magnetic disturbances. This is apparent in Tables XXXVII. and XXXVIII., which contain some statistics for Batavia due to van Bemmelen, and some for Greenwich derived from the data in Maunder's papers referred to above. Table XXXVII. gives the relative frequency of occurrence for two hour intervals, starting with midnight, treating separately the storms of gradual (g) an sudden (s) commencement. In Table XXXVIII. the day is subdivided into three equal parts. Batavia and Greenwich agree in showing maximum frequency of beginnings about the time of minimum frequency of endings and conversely; but the hours at which the respective maxima and minima occur at the two places differ rather notably.
§ 36. There are peculiarities in the sudden movements ushering in magnetic storms which deserve fuller mention. According to van Bemmelen the im ulse consists usually at some stations of a sudden slight jerk ofp the magnet in one direction, followed by a larger decided movement in the opposite direction, the former being often indistinctly shown. Often we have at the very commencement but a faint outline, and thereafter a continuous movement which is only sometimes distinctly indicated, resulting after some minutes in the displacement of the trace by a finite amount from the position it occupied on the paper before the disturbance began.
TABLE XXXVI.-Disturbances, and their Annual Distribution. Total Percentages. Y
Number' Winter. Equinox. Summer.
Gre§ nwich disturbed days,
a, 1848-1902 . .,2I - - 6-Greenwich
disturbed days, 4 4 33 9 39 2 2 9
range 10' to 30', 1848-1902
830 - -0 -1
Greenwich disturbed days, 3 33 9 39 27 range 30' to 60', 1848-1902
0 - — Greenwich
disturbed days, 3 7 34 5 41 0 24 4
range over 60', 1848-1902
77 2 - -6 8-6
Kew highly disturbed days, 9 9 41 2
189Of190O .... 209 38-3 41-6 20-1
storms, all, 1848-1903 . 726 32-1 42-3 25-6 Greenwich magnetic
storms, range 20' to 30',
1848f1903 . 392 30-1 43-6 26-3
storms, range over 30',
184811903 ~ - - - 334 34'4 4°'7 24'9
storms, all, 14 years of
S. max. ..... 258 35-3 38-o 26-7
Greenwich m a g 11e t i c
storms, all, 15 years of
S. mm. . . . . 127 28-4 48-0 23-6
Batavia magnetic storms,
all- ¥883'1399 - - - 1,008 32-9 34-9 32-2 Batavia magnetic storms
of gradual commencement
679 32-4 34-8 32-8
Batavla magnetic storms
of sudden commencement
329 33-7 35-3 31-0
This may mean, as van Bemmelen supposes, a small preliminary movement lfl the opposite direction to the clearly shown displace-IT}€Ht§ but Ili may only mean that the magnet is initially set in vibration, swinging on both sides of the position of equilibrium, the real displacement of the equilibrium position being all the time in the direction of the displacement apparent after a few minutes. To prevent misconception, the direction of the displacement apparent after a few minutes has been termed the direc-TABLE XXXVII;-Batavia Magnetic Storms, Diurnal Distribution (percentages).
Hour. 0 2 4 6 8 IO 12 14 16 18
- - g 5 5 5 6 20 16 7 5 6 9 8 8
Begmnmg s 7 5' 7 IO IO II IO 8 8 9 8 7 2 IO 6 5 4 9 9 6 6 6 1 2 I5
I4 7 5 2 2 9 9 5 8 IO 13 16
16 19 13 5 3 6 5 4 5 4 5
End 1 5,
Maximum i I
tion of the first decided movement in Table XXXIX., which contains some data as to the direction given by Ellis 41 and van Bemmelen!" The ~l- sign means an increase, the - sign a decrease of the element. The sign is not invariably the same, it will be understood, but there are in all cases a marked preponderance of changes in the direction shown in the table. The fact that all the stations indicated an increase in horizontal force is of special significance. A TABLE XXXVIII.-Greenwich Magnetic Storms, Diurnal Distribution.
T I Percentages.
Epoch. Class. of a —l—i-Number.
1 8 Dm- .9 p m 5 a m
l§ '§§ ii§ 3§ 111' 33; 82; is .2312
g ., ,, Sudden 77 45-4 27-3 27'3
1848-1903 all 720 9-4 44-6 46-0
End 1882-1903 H 276 7-2 41-7 51-1
H H Sudden, 77 U'7 35'I 53'2
§ 37. That large magnetic
disturbances occur simultaneously
over large areas was known in the time of Gauss, on whose 1I'l1tl83IlV€ observations were taken at 5-minute intervals at a number of stations